Agricultural and Biological Sciences Journal
Articles Information
Agricultural and Biological Sciences Journal, Vol.1, No.4, Aug. 2015, Pub. Date: Jun. 6, 2015
Mites (Acarina) as Vectors of Plant Pathogens and Relation of These Pests to Plant Diseases
Pages: 150-156 Views: 2303 Downloads: 1972
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Almost all plants are under attack by several types of enemies like herbivorous arthropods and plant pathogens. The purpose of this manuscript is to present a comprehensive outline of the pathogens that cause diseases of the various plants and are transmitted by mites. Mites are arachnids related to ticks and spiders, however, differ from insects, and are capable of infesting many orchards, trees, shrubs and plants. Numerous sorts of mites may cause injury to vegetation, but the maximum common are spider mites and adults of two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch Family: Tetranychidae), which are yellowish-green in color by having two conspicuous dark spots on the body, that is a parenchym feeder, and most vegetable crops are its hosts. Mite’s damage initially seems as a sufficient speckling or whitening on the upper surface of leaves by reason of pest’s nourishing on the underneath and seriously infested leaves turn into bronzed and dry. These versatile tiny creatures not only reduce plant’s vigor, but can also transmit some dangerous pathogens causing numerous diseases. The plant pathogens (viruses, fungi and bacteria) are transmitted or spread by mites and belong to different families such as Siteroptidae, Acaridae, Tenuipalpidae, Tetranychidae, Tarsonemidae and Eriophyidae. Repeated control of vector is almost and always necessary to prevent spread of disease; therefore, management tactics must take into consideration the rapid growth period of this pest, particularly throughout hot climate when eggs are laid constantly. Just pursuing on the adults of mite can do a slight worthy if eggs and larvae survive. Dust on leaves, branches and fruit encourages mites, and mid-season washing to remove dust from plants is a worthwhile preventative measure. Water stress makes both trees and plants more susceptible to mite infestations and plants watered properly are helpful to control and prevent further infestations. The use of some of the natural enemies such as lacewing larvae, ladybird beetles, minute pirate bugs, certain thrips species and predatory mites that feed on harmful mites is beneficial for their part as biological control mediators.
Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Plant Disease, Pathogens, Damage, Vector
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