American Journal of Geophysics, Geochemistry and Geosystems
Articles Information
American Journal of Geophysics, Geochemistry and Geosystems, Vol.6, No.1, Mar. 2020, Pub. Date: Feb. 20, 2020
Geomorphic Classification and Mapping of Rapti River System Using Satellite Remote Sensing Data
Pages: 1-15 Views: 199 Downloads: 139
Authors
[01] Kuldeep Pareta, Water Resource Department, DHI (India) Water & Environment Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.
[02] Upasana Pareta, Department of Mathematics, PG College, District Sagar (Madhya Pradesh), India.
Abstract
Rapti river system in India has been selected for the form and process based geomorphic classification and mapping through modern techniques i.e. satellite remote sensing data, digital elevation model data, survey of India topographical maps, and GIS. The high-resolution satellite remote sensing data and GIS has provided very precise and relatively complex information about the rivers specifically focused on fluvial geomorphic features / units. More than 100 research articles have been critically reviewed for form and process based geomorphic classification. Various geomorphologists have tried to map the river based on form and process, more of them, mapped the river on them own thought, some of geomorphic features are commonly mapped, but some geomorphic features, they were mapped differently means geomorphic features are same, but they have given the name different as no match with each-other. Total 57 different geomorphic classifications have been obtained from these studies and have been grouped into four geomorphic classification i.e. Rosgen classification system, river styles framework, natural channel classification, and statistical classification. For this study we have used 1: 2000 mapping scale to identify various in-channel geomorphic features, and out-of-channel geomorphic features at micro level. A total of 44 specific morphology features have been identified, out of which 21 specific morphology features have been identified in “out-of-channel (active floodplain)”, 5 specific morphology features have been identified in “out-of-channel inactive floodplain (terrace)” and 18 specific morphology features have been identified in “in-channel”.
Keywords
Geomorphic Classification, Remote Sensing, DEM, GIS, Rapti River
References
[01] Pareta K. (2013). Geomorphology and hydrogeology: applications and techniques using remote sensing and GIS. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany. pp. 1-413.
[02] Haskins DM, Correll CS, Foster RA, Chatoian JM, Fincher JM, Strenger S, Keys JE, Maxwell JR, and King T. (1998). A geomorphic classification system. Geomorphology Working Group, USDA Forest Service. Ver 1.4, pp. 6.
[03] Mosley MP. (1987). The classification and characteristics of rivers. River Channels: Environment and Processes. (Richards K. ed). Blackwell.
[04] Salo J. (1990). External processes influencing origin and maintenance of inland water-land ecotones in the Ecology and Management of Aquatic-Terrestrial Ecotones. In: Eds RJ Naiman and H Dècamps, Unesco Paris, and the Parthenon Press Publishing Group, Carnforth. pp. 37-64.
[05] Frissell CA, Liss WJ, Warren CE, and Hurley MD. (1986). A hierarchical framework for stream classification: viewing streams in a watershed context. Environmental Management. Vol. 10, pp. 199-214.
[06] Brussock PP, Brown AV, and Dixon JC. (1985). Channel form and stream ecosystem models. Water Resources Bulletin. Vol. 21, pp. 859-866.
[07] Leopold LB, Wolman MG, and Miller JP. (1964). Fluvial processes in geomorphology. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.
[08] Jones AF, Brewer PA, Johnstone E, and Macklin MG. (2007). High-resolution interpretative geomorphological mapping of river valley environments using airborne LiDAR data. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Vol. 32 (10), pp. 1574-1592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/esp.1505
[09] Carbonneau P, Fonstad MA, Marcus WA, and Dugdale SJ. (2011). Making riverscapes real. Geomorphology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2010.09.030
[10] Williams RD, Brasington J, Vericat D, and Hicks DM. (2013). Hyperscale terrain modelling of braided rivers: fusing mobile terrestrial laser scanning and optical bathymetric mapping. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/esp.3437
[11] Dollar ESJ, James CS, Rogers KH, and Thoms MC. (2007). A framework for interdisciplinary understanding of rivers as ecosystems. Geomorphology. Vol. 89 (1-2), pp. 147-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2006.07.022
[12] Thorp JH, Flotemersch JE, Williams B, and Gabanski LA. (2013). Critical role for hierarchical geospatial analyses in the design of fluvial research, assessment, and management. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. Vol. 185, pp. 7165-7180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-013-3091-9
[13] Roux C, Alber A, Bertrand M, Vaudor L, and Piégay H. (2014). FluvialCorridor: a new ArcGIS toolbox package for multiscale riverscape exploration. Geomorphology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2014.04.018
[14] Wyrick JR, and Pasternack GB. (2014). Geospatial organization of fluvial landforms in a gravel-cobble river: beyond the riffle-pool couplet. Geomorphology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.12.040
[15] Richards K, and Clifford NJ. (2011). The nature of explanation in geomorphology. The SAGE Handbook of Geomorphology. SAGE, London. pp. 36-58.
[16] USGS. (2019). Landsat-8 OLI Satellite Imagery. Earth Explorer, Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Centre, United States Geological Survey (USGS). https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/
[17] Alaska Satellite Facility. (2010). ALOS PALSAR Terrain-Corrected (RTC) DEM data. Alaska Satellite Facility, Fairbanks (AK). https://search.asf.alaska.edu/
[18] SOI. (2004). Survey of India Topographical Maps, Open Series Maps (OSM) on 1:50,000 scale. Survey of India, Nakshe Portal. http://soinakshe.uk.gov.in/
[19] ArcGIS Online Satellite Imagery. (2019). http://www.arcgis.com/home/webmap/viewer.html
[20] Gurnell AM, Angold P, and Gregory KL. (1994). Classification of river corridors: issues to be address in development an operational methodology. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystem. Vol. 4, pp. 219-231.
[21] Gilbert GK. (1877). Report on the geology of the Henry Mountains. U.S. Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, First ed. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. pp. 160.
[22] Gilbert GK. (1914). The transportation of debris by running water. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 86, Washington, DC. pp. 263.
[23] Gilbert GK. (1917). Hydraulic-mining debris in the Sierra Nevada. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 105, Washington, DC. pp. 154.
[24] Melton FA. (1936). An empirical classification of flood-plain streams. Geographical Review. Vol. 26, pp. 593-609.
[25] Leopold LB, and Wolman MG. (1957). River channel patterns: braided, meandering, and straight. US Geological Survey, Professional Paper 282-B, Washington, DC. pp. 39-84.
[26] Galay VJ, Kellerhals R, and Bary DI. (1973). Diversity of river types in Canada. In: Fluvial Processes and Sedimentation, Processing of Hydrology Symposium No. 9, Edmonton, Alberta: National Research Council of Canada, pp. 216-250.
[27] Simons DB. (1963). Discussion of Stability of alluvial channels by F. M. Henderson. American Society of Civil Engineers Transactions. Vol. 128, pp. 698-705.
[28] Cupp CE. (1989). Valley segment type classification for forested lands of Washington. Washington State Department of Natural Resources. Timber, Fish, and Wildlife Agreement Report TFW-AM-89-001, Olympia, WA. pp. 44.
[29] Nanson GC, and Croke JC. (1992). A genetic classification of floodplains. Geomorphology. Vol. 4, pp. 459-486.
[30] Brice JC. (1975). Air photo interpretation of the form and behavior of alluvial rivers. Final report to the U.S. Army Research Office, Durham, NC, Washington University, St. Louis, MO. pp. 10.
[31] Schumm SA. (1977). The fluvial system. Blackburn Press, Caldwell, NJ. pp. 338.
[32] Osterkamp WR. (1978). Gradient, discharge, and particle-size relations of alluvial channels in Kansas, with observations on braiding. American Journal of Science. Vol. 278, pp. 1253-1268.
[33] Bray DI. (1982). Regime equations for gravel-bed rivers. In: Hey, R. D., Bathurst, J. C., and Thorne, C. R., editors. Gravelbed Rivers. Chichester. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. pp. 517-552.
[34] Grant GE, Swanson FJ, and Wolman MG. (1990). Pattern and origin of stepped-bed morphology in high-gradient streams, Western Cascades, Oregon. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Vol. 102, pp. 340-352.
[35] Hal Halwas KL, and Church M. (2002). Channel units in small high gradient streams on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Geomorphology. Vol. 43, pp. 243-256.
[36] Gustard A. (1992). Analysis of river regimes. In: Calow, P.; Petts, G., eds. The rivers handbook. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Scientific. pp. 28-47.
[37] Montgomery DR. (1999). Process domains and the river continuum. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Vol. 35, pp. 397-410.
[38] Church M. (2002). Geomorphic thresholds in riverine landscapes. Freshwater Biology. Vol. 47, pp. 541-557.
[39] Church M. (2006). Bed material transport and the morphology of alluvial rivers. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Vol. 34, pp. 325-354.
[40] Horton RE. (1945). Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins: hydro-physical approach to quantitative morphology. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Vol. 56, pp. 275-370.
[41] Strahler AN. (1957). Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology. Transactions, American Geophysical Union. Vol. 38, pp. 913-920.
[42] Hynes HBN. (1975). The stream and its valley. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Verein Limnologie (EVISA). Vol. 19, pp. 1-15.
[43] Kellerhals R, Church M, and Bray DI. (1976). Classification and analysis of river processes. Journal of the Hydraulics Division, American Society of Civil Engineers. Vol. 102, pp. 813-829.
[44] Florsheim JL. (1985). Fluvial requirements for gravel bar formation in northwestern California. M.S. thesis, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA. pp. 105.
[45] Brierley GJ, and Fryirs KA. (2005). Geomorphology and river management: applications of the river styles framework. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. pp. 398.
[46] Knighton AD, and Nanson GC. (1993). Anastomosis and the continuum of channel pattern. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Vol. 18, pp. 613-625.
[47] Pareta K, and Pareta U. (2017). Geomorphological analysis and hydrological potential zone of Baira river watershed, Churah in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India. Indonesian Journal of Science and Technology. Vol. 2 (1), pp. 26-49.
[48] FPC. (1996). Channel assessment procedure field guide book. Forest Practices Code, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Vancouver, BC. pp. 95.
[49] Hogan DL, Bird SA, and Wilford DJ. 1996. Channel conditions and prescriptions assessment (interim methods). British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks and Ministry of Forests, Watershed Restoration Technical Circular no. 7, Victoria, BC. pp. 42.
[50] Montgomery DR, and Buffington JM. (1997). Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Vol. 109, pp. 596-611.
[51] Montgomery DR, and Buffington JM. (1998). Channel processes, classification, and response. In: Naiman, R. J., Bilby, R. E. (Eds.), River Ecology and Management. Springer-Verlag, New York. pp. 13-42.
[52] Buffington JM, and Montgomery DR. (2013). Geomorphic classification of rivers. In: Shroder, J.; Wohl, E., ed. Treatise on Geomorphology. Fluvial Geomorphology. Vol. 9. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. pp. 730-767.
[53] Fryirs KA, and Brierley GJ. (2000). A geomorphic approach to the identification of river recovery potential. Physical Geography. Vol. 21, pp. 244-277.
[54] Buffington JM, Lisle TE, Woodsmith RD, and Hilton S. (2002). Controls on the size and occurrence of pools in coarse-grained forest rivers. River Research and Applications. Vol. 18, pp. 507-531.
[55] Ferguson RI. (1987). Hydraulic and sedimentary controls of channel pattern. In: Richards, K. S. (Ed.), River Channels: Environment and Process. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. pp. 129-158.
[56] Beechie TJ, Liermann M, Pollock MM, Baker S, and Davies J. (2006). Channel pattern and river-floodplain dynamics in forested mountain river systems. Geomorphology. Vol. 78, pp. 124-141.
[57] Davis WM. (1899). The geographical cycle. The Geological Journal. Vol. 14, pp. 481-504.
[58] Henderson FM. (1963). Some properties of the unit hydrograph. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 68 (16), pp. 4785-4794.
[59] Schumm SA. (1963). A tentative classification of alluvial river channels. US Geological Survey Circular 477, Washington, DC. pp. 10.
[60] Schumm SA and Khan HR. (1972). Experimental study of channel patterns. Geological Society of America Bulletin. Vol. 83, pp. 1755-1770.
[61] Schumm SA. (1979). Geomorphic thresholds, the concept and its application. Transactions Institute of British Geographers. Vol. 4.4, pp. 485-515.
[62] Schumm SA. (1981). Evolution and response of the fluvial system, sedimentological implications. In: Ethridge, F. G., Flores, R. M. (Eds.), Recent and Nonmarine Depositional Environments. SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Special Publication 31, Tulsa, OK. pp. 19-29.
[63] Mollard JD. (1973). Air photo interpretation of fluvial features. Fluvial Processes and Sedimentation. National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON. pp. 341-380.
[64] Kellerhals R, and Church M. (1989). The morphology of large rivers: characterization and management. 31-48. In: D. P. Dodge (Ed.) Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 106. Ottawa, ON, pp. 31-48.
[65] Parker G. (1976). On the cause and characteristic scales of meandering and braiding in rivers. Journal of Fluid Mechanics. Vol. 76, pp. 457-480.
[66] Church M, and Jones D. (1982). Channel bars in gravel-bed rivers. In: Hey, R. D., Bathurst, J. C., Thorne, C. R. (Eds.), Gravel-bed Rivers: Fluvial Processes, Engineering and Management. Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp. 291-338.
[67] Carson MA. (1984)a. The meandering-braided river threshold: a reappraisal. Journal of Hydrology. Vol. 73, pp. 315-334.
[68] Carson MA. (1984)b. Observations on the meandering-braided river transition, The Canterbury Plains, New Zealand: part one. New Zealand Geographer. Vol. 40, pp. 12-17.
[69] Pareta K, Jakobsen F, and Joshi M. (2019). Morphological characteristics and vulnerability assessment of Alaknanda, Bhagirathi, Mandakini and Kali rivers, Uttarakhand (India). American Journal of Geophysics, Geochemistry and Geosystems. Vol. 5 (2), pp. 49-68.
[70] Rosgen DL. (1994). A classification of natural rivers. Catena. Vol. 22, pp. 169-199.
[71] Rosgen DL. (1996)a. Applied river morphology. Wildland Hydrology, Pagosa, Springs, Co. pp. 33-43.
[72] Rosgen DL. (2006). The application of stream classification using the fluvial geomorphology approach for natural channel design: the rest of the story. In: Graham, R. (Ed.), World Environmental and Water Resource Congress 2006: Examining the Confluence of Environmental and Water Resource Concerns. American Society of Civil Engineers, New York.
[73] Petit F. (1995). Hydrological regime and fluvial dynamics of the Ardennes rivers. Essay of Physical Geography. pp. 194-223.
[74] Pareta K, and Pareta U. 2012. Integrated watershed modeling and characterization using GIS and remote sensing techniques. Indian Journal of Engineering. vol. 1 (1), pp. 81-91.
[75] Wheaton JM, Fryirs KA, Brierley G, Bangen SG, and Bouwes N, O’Brien G. (2015). Geomorphic mapping and taxonomy of fluvial landforms. Geomorphology. Vo. 248. pp. 273-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.07.010
[76] Otto A, and Braukmann U. (1983). Water typology in rural areas. In: Publication series of the Federal Minister of Food, Agriculture and Forests. Row A: Angewandle Wissenschaft, issue 288, Landwirtschaftsverlag GmbH. pp. 61.
[77] Maire G, and Wilms P. (1984). Hydro-geomorphological study of Giessen, Determination of homogeneous sectors. Alsace Region, Louis Pasteur University, Center for Applied Geography, UA 95 CNRS, Strasbourg. pp. 87.
[78] Piégay H, Barge O, and Landon N. (1996). Streamway concept applied to river mobility / human use conflict management. In: International Water Resource Association: RiverTech, New / Emerging Concept for Rivers, Chicage, Unites State. pp. 681-688.
[79] Piégay H, Cuaz M, Javelle E, and Mandier P. (1997). A new approach to bank erosion management: the case of the Galaure river, France. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management. Vol. 13, pp. 433-448.
[80] Kasprak A, Hough-Snee N, Beechie T, Bouwes N, Brierley G, and Camp R. (2016). The blurred line between form and process: a comparison of stream channel classification frameworks. PLoS ONE. Vol. 11 (3).
[81] Bisson PA, and Montgomery DR. (1996). Valley segments, stream reaches, and channel units. In: Hauer, F. R., Lamberti, G. A. (Eds.), Methods in Stream Ecology, First ed. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. pp. 23-52.
[82] Rosgen DL. (1985). A stream classification system. In: R. R. Johnson, C. D. Zerbell, D. R. Polliott and R. H. Harris (ed). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. US Forest Service Gen Tech Report M-120. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. pp. 91-95.
[83] Lee J. (2005). Uses and limitations of geomorphological stream channel classification: a systematic review of the literature. pdfs.semanticscholar.org. pp. 1-20.
[84] Newman S, and Swanson S. (2008). Assessment of changes in stream and riparian conditions of the Marys river basin, Nevada. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Vol. 44, pp. 1-13.
[85] Schumm SA, Harvey MD, and Watson CC. (1984). Incised channels: morphology, dynamics, and control. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colorado. pp. 200.
[86] Olsen DS, Whittaker A, and Potts DF. (1998). Assessing stream stability thresholds using flow competence estimates at bank full stage. Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Vol. 33, pp. 1197-1207.
[87] Zumstein JF, and Goetghebeur P. (1994). Typology of the Rhine-Meuse river rivers. Rhine-Meuse Water Agency. pp. 6.
[88] Gregory KJ. (2002). Urban channel adjustments in a management context: an Australian example. Environmental Management. Vol. 29, pp. 620-633.
[89] Wilcock PR, and Kenworthy ST. (2002). A two‐fraction model for the transport of sand/gravel mixtures. Water Resources Research. Vol. 38 (10), pp. 1194.
[90] Kondolf GM, Montgomery DR, Piegay H, and Schmitt L. (2003). Geomorphic classification of rivers and streams. In: Kondolf, G. M., Piegay, H. (Eds.), Tools in Fluvial Geomorphology. Wiley, Chichester, UK. pp. 171-204.
[91] Lewin J. (2013). Enlightenment and the GM floodplain. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Vol. 38 (1), pp. 17-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/esp.3230
[92] Fryirs KA, and Brierley GJ. (2013)a. Chapter eight: instream geomorphic units. In: Fryirs, K. A., Brierley, G. J. (Eds.), Geomorphic Analysis of River Systems: An Approach to Reading the Landscape, First Edition Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Chichester, U.K. pp. 132-154.
[93] Fryirs KA, and Brierley GJ. (2013)b. Geomorphic analysis of river systems: an approach to reading the landscape. First Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Chichester, U.K. pp. 345.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.