American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Articles Information
American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Vol.1, No.1, Jul. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 16, 2015
Controlling Dengue Spreading Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Using Ecological Services by Frogs, Toads and Tadpoles (Anura) as Predators
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[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Dengue is now the most important mosquitoes borne viral disease of humans in terms of both morbidity and mortality, and a lack of an effectual vaccine or treatment for the disease makes control of its vectors as a consideration of primary importance. Mosquito eggs can survive drought conditions while harboring pathogens and perpetuate diseases throughout breeding season. Biological control of mosquitoes using vertebrates mostly birds, mammals, reptiles, fishes and insect predators has been highlighted, but, sufficient scientific evidences through usage of amphibians as predators are few. This article explores the use of frogs, toads and tadpoles (immature frogs) as egg, larva and adult predators for control of dengue disease carrying Aedes vector mosquitoes. Frogs, toads and tadpoles are significant fractions of the ecosystem for their parts for predating on various life stages of insects including mosquitoes to fulfil vector's control task. Since the eggs of mosquitoes are minute, and in some species such as Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), only individual eggs are laid (as opposed to egg rafts in some other mosquito species), so the propensity of egg predation by predators is not apparent. Adult frogs and toads consume adult mosquitoes; however, tadpoles commonly consume mosquito larvae. Even when tadpoles are not interested to eat mosquito larvae, and as these grow up to become toads or frogs, can eat adult mosquitoes. With respect to available information from various studies, one frog or toad can consume about a hundred mosquitoes in a night. Still, the associations of different prey and predator relationships in the environment to assess the feasibility on the use of a species as biocontrol agent for vector control exist. However, frogs or toads cannot be used alone as an independent intervention for vector borne disease control in surroundings and more research is needed to use them effectively for mosquito control. Consequently, before deciding to raise frogs or toads make sure to understand state’s laws on collecting wildlife, and prior to making a wild species as pet, it is also best to read and check with the legality of having a native species a pet as some amphibian types are very fragile and poisonous.
Dengue, Mosquito, Vector Control, Predators, Frog, Toad, Tadpole, Amphibian
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