American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Articles Information
American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Vol.1, No.2, Sep. 2015, Pub. Date: Aug. 24, 2015
Source Reduction Practices for Mosquitoes (Diptera) Management to Prevent Dengue, Malaria and Other Arboborne Diseases
Pages: 110-116 Views: 1919 Downloads: 1236
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
Abstract
Progress in control of arboborne (arthropod bites to person) diseases focuses mainly on chemical interventions like residual sprayings and insecticide treated nets, so problems of using pesticides continue to exist in many countries. Non-chemical control program using source management for mosquitoes control has been promoted or tested in several experimental projects. Source reduction primarily aims to prevent development of aquatic stages of mosquito’s larvae by reducing breeding source primarily involving methods like filling, drainage, drains and drainage in irrigation schemes. But sustained implementation of source reduction practices is uncommon and insufficient support available is as well. This paper presents case studies from various states, which demonstrates that source reduction to prevent mosquitoes is cost-effective to fight against dengue, malaria and other arboborne diseases effectively in rural and urban areas, and can underpin economic development in prone areas. After identifying principal breeding sites responsible for diseases transmission, it is urgent to apply selective larval control action, which has been called species sanitation. Housing conditions might be improved, and water supply and sanitation facilities can also be taken as a primary step to establish source management. Many breeding sites can be identified along nearby banks of river, sea, or other water holding bodies for modification and vegetation clearance. Environmental management strategies might prove to be sustainable over the long-term enabling development of state by effectively controlling diseases. Comprehensive and integrated mosquito management program including use of adulticides or larvicides, source management, zooprophylaxis, aerial space spraying and using coils, screens and repellents are essential. During epidemics, indoor and outdoor residual sprayings are generally conducted, commonly using insecticides against adults and larvae. Mosquito days can be initiated to activate the local community for source management through draining pools and canals, filling pools of stagnant water, and personal protection. But interest in developing non-pesticidal approaches has been growing especially as mosquitoes have developed resistance. This recommends, motivates and introduces to citizens to reduce mosquito-borne diseases through environmentally sound strategies that require no cost outlay. Arboborne diseases control based on source management can be non-toxic, feasible and cost-effective, and demonstrates the feasibility of sustainable bioenvironmental vector control. Key points of success are combination of multiple interventions adapted to local conditions, community participation, awareness raising, surveillance, decentralisation, local capacity building, intersectoral collaboration, improvement of public health system, income generation, involvement of civil society organizations, regional cooperation and support by local research.
Keywords
Source Reduction, Mosquito Control, Sustainable Vector Control, Dengue, Malaria
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