American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Articles Information
American Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, Vol.4, No.1, Mar. 2019, Pub. Date: May 16, 2019
Effective Mechanisms to Control Mosquito Borne Diseases: A Review
Pages: 21-30 Views: 43 Downloads: 65
Authors
[01] Muhammad Abdullah Shaukat, Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
[02] Sajjad Ali, Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
[03] Bushra Saddiq, Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
[04] Muhammad Waqar Hassan, Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
[05] Ammad Ahmad, Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
[06] Muhammad Kamran, Department of Entomology, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Punjab, Pakistan.
Abstract
Mosquitoes are considered as the most fatal and lethal organisms in the world causing millions of deaths annually around the world. Deaths caused by malaria alone was reached to 4,38,000 deaths in 2015. A variety of diseases are caused by mosquitoes as vectors. The important ones are Dengue Fever, Malaria, Yellow Fever, West Nile Virus, Rift Valley Fever, Chikungunya, Japanese Encephalitis and some others. In this review we comprise and acknowledge the role of WHO in relation to efforts against the alarming situations of mosquito borne diseases. The major roles of WHO to eradicate disease risks are (1) giving evidence-based direction for monitoring vectors. (2) provide technical support to countries. (3) support countries to advance their reporting systems. (4) provide training on clinical management, diagnosis and vector control. (5) support the growth and evaluation of new tools, technologies and tactics for vector borne diseases. Here, various tactics are discussed which could be helpful in the management methods against mosquito borne diseases in a very feasible, inexpensive and eco-friendly fashion. Therefore, it was evaluated that the mosquito eating fish (Gambusia affinis and Poecilia reticulata) Copepods (Macrocyclops albidus Jurine), larvae of Odonata species and aquatic insects, including backswimmers (Buenoa pallipes Fabricius) were the most-often detected predators and it was a very simplest method to limit the mosquito populations. Source reduction is a very crucial factor. Source reduction mainly concerns with prevention of development of mosquito’s larvae by eliminating their breeding sites mostly including tactics such as drainage, filling, drains and drainage of irrigation courses. After recognizing primary breeding sites accountable for disease transmission, it is quick to start a selective larval control action, which has been called species sanitation. A great variety of plants species found in the World that exerts a great impact on repelling mosquitoes. Some DEET based compounds proved an average protection from mosquitoes ranges from 22.9-94.6 minutes with different active ingredients. Some plant essential oils such as thyme oil, catnip oil, amyris oil, eucalyptus oil, and cinnamon oil were checked contrary to three mosquito species: Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex pipiens Pallens and give significant results and repellent efficacy. Hence, there is a need of compatibility and integration of all above discussed mechanisms to acquire good results in context to prevention and eradication of arboborne/mosquito borne diseases.
Keywords
Mosquito Borne Diseases, Mosquito Predators, Habitat Elimination, Mosquito Repellents
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