American Journal of Psychology and Cognitive Science
Articles Information
American Journal of Psychology and Cognitive Science, Vol.1, No.5, Dec. 2015, Pub. Date: Dec. 6, 2015
"Sensory Processing and Systems Science: There Is More Than Meets the Eye "
Pages: 117-139 Views: 1493 Downloads: 372
Authors
[01] Ivo P. Janecka, Foundation for Systems Research and Education, New York, USA.
Abstract
Background: Perplexing questions exist regarding the reliability of human eyewitnesses and form the purpose for this study: why two observers can have different recollections of the same event and simultaneously be both wrong? Material/Method: Public domain records, related to sensory processing and perception, have been studied; selection emphasis has been on the most recent publications. Systems Science and Dynamic Systems Model methodologies were used in this study. They offer a complementary perspective on examining sensory input, processing, and output of biologic entities while searching for meaning. Results/Conclusions: Sensory processing depends on “movement” and “intensity” of any environmental change; sensory perception depends on “memory” and “rhythm” within neuro-net oscillations; both processing and perception involve massive data filtration and compression at various strategic nodes within the connectome; brain and muscles are closely linked in their basic metabolic needs and functions that maintain the life-sustaining process of a biologic system with alternating “activity” and “recovery;” the “internal dialog” of cognition is the language of the mind and functions as the Rosetta Stone for translating the electro-chemical signals of sensory processing into an understandable mother tongue of sensory perception. The conflicting observations by eyewitnesses are related not to their differing sensory processing but to their variable sensory perception; systems science offers a path to elucidate the details.
Keywords
Senses, Sensory Processing, Perception, Systems Science, Reality, Relationships, Phases of Life
References
[01] Aurelius, M., Hays, G. (Translator) (2003) Marcus Aurelius, Meditations: A New Translation, New York: Modern Library ISBN-10: 0812968255 ISBN-13: 978-0812968255.
[02] Von Bertalanffy, L. (1969) General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications, New York: George Braziller.
[03] Cheever, S. (2014) E.E. Cummings: A Life, New York: Pantheon Books, www.delanceyplace.com accessed Jan 13, 2015.
[04] Zimbardo, P. and Boyd, J. (2008) The Time Paradox. New York: Free Press/Simon & Schuster.
[05] Anstis S. (2015) Seeing Isn’t Believing. How motion illusions trick the visual system, and what they can teach us about how our eyes and brains evolved. The Scientist, June 1, http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/43036/title/Seeing-Isn-t-Believing/
[06] Dwyer J. (2015) Witness Accounts in Midtown Hammer Attack Show the Power of False Memory. NYT, May 15.
[07] Gluth S, Sommer T, Rieskamp J, et al. (2015) Effective Connectivity between Hippocampus and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Controls Preferential Choices from Memory. Neuron, 86 (4): 1078 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2015.04.023.
[08] Carter, S. (2010) Jay-Z Decoded, New York: Spiegel & Grau www.dalanceyplace.com accessed Apr 16, 2015.
[09] Lacey S, Stilla R and Sathian K. (2012) Metaphorically feeling: Comprehending textural metaphors activates somatosensory cortex. Brain and Language, DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2011.12.016 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/02/120203182623.htm
[10] Janecka IP. (2007) Cancer control through principles of systems science, complexity, and chaos theory: A model. Int J Med Sci 4:1640173. http://www.medsci.org/v04p0164.htm
[11] Janecka IP. (2014) Sensing risk, fearing uncertainty: Systems science approach to change. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 8, 00030, DOI=10.3389/fncom.2014.00030 ISSN=1662-5188 http://www.frontiersin.org/Journal/Abstract.aspx?s=237&name=computational_neuroscience&ART_
[12] Sturgill J and Isaacson J. (2015) Somatostatin cells regulate sensory response fidelity via subtractive inhibition in olfactory cortex. Nature Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1038/nn.3971 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150309145736.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[13] Natarajan P. (2015) The Exquisite Role of Dark Matter - A Conversation with Priyamvada Natarajan, Professor, Departments of Astronomy and Physics, Yale University. Edge #443 http://edge.org/conversation/priyamvada_natarajan-the-exquisite-role-of-dark-matter
[14] Roberts L, Leise T, Noguchi T, et al. (2015) Light Evokes Rapid Circadian Network Oscillator Desynchrony Followed by Gradual Phase Retuning of Synchrony. Current Biology, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.01.056 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150309135140.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[15] Thaiss C, Zeevi D, Levy M, et al. Transkingdom Control of Microbiota Diurnal Oscillations Promotes Metabolic Homeostasis. Cell, DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.048 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141021101514.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[16] Anafi RC, Lee Y, Sato TK, et al. (2014) Machine Learning Helps Identify CHRONO as a Circadian Clock Component. PLOS-Biology doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001840
[17] Beckwith E, Gorostiza E, Berni J, et al. (2013) Circadian Period Integrates Network Information Through Activation of the BMP Signaling Pathway. PLOS-Biology DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001733 http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1001733
[18] Whitney P, Hinson J, Jackson M, et al. (2015) Total Sleep Deprivation Impairs Decision Making that Requires Updating Based on Feedback. SLEEP, DOI: 10.5665/sleep.4668 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150507165432.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[19] Brami-Cherrier K, Anzalone A, Ramos M, et al. (2014) Epigenetic reprogramming of cortical neurons through alteration of dopaminergic circuits. Molecular Psychiatry, DOI: 10.1038/mp.2014.67 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/07/140721142213.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[20] Balestra F, von Tobel L, Gönczy P. (2015) Paternally contributed centrioles exhibit exceptional persistence in C. elegans embryos. Cell Research, DOI: 10.1038/cr.2015.49 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150424085630.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[21] Devanapally S, Ravikumar S, Jose A. (2015) Double-stranded RNA made in C. elegans neurons can enter the germline and cause transgenerational gene silencing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201423333 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1423333112 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150202212449.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[22] Jung M and Pfeifer G. (2015) Aging and DNA methylation. BMC Biology 13:7 doi:10.1186/s12915-015-0118-4 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/13/7
[23] Rottensteiner M, Leskinen T, Niskanen E et al. (2015) Physical Activity, Fitness, Glucose Homeostasis, and Brain Morphology in Twins. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 47(3) p 509–518 doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000437 http://journals.lww.com/acsm-msse/Abstract/2015/03000/Physical_Activity,_Fitness,_Glucose_Homeostasis,.8.aspx
[24] Lee H, Lowdon R, Maricque B, et al. (2015) Developmental enhancers revealed by extensive DNA methylome maps of zebrafish early embryos. Nature Communications, 6: 6315 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7315 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150223122336.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29]
[25] Katsoulis M, Kyrozis A, Trichopoulou A, et al. (2014) Cognitive impairment and cancer mortality: a biological or health care explanation? Cancer Causes & Control 25(11) pp 1565-1570 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10552-014-0460-9?wt_mc=alerts.TOCjournals
[26] Marioni R, Shah S, McRae A, et al. (2015) DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life. Genome Biology, 16 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s13059-015-0584-6 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150130092913.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[27] Lindholm M, Marabita F, Gomez-Cabrero D, et al. (2014) An integrative analysis reveals coordinated reprogramming of the epigenome and the transcriptome in human skeletal muscle after training. Epigenetics, DOI: 10.4161/15592294.2014.982445 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141209081646.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[28] Collins S and Bercik P. (2009) The relationship between intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system in normal gastrointestinal function and disease. Gastroenterology 136(6):2003-14. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2009.01.075. Epub May 7 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19457424
[29] Drukerman P, (2015) Less may be more, but it’s still not enough. The Clutter Cure's Illusory Joy, NYT, Feb 17 http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/16/opinion/the-clutter-cures-illusory-joy.html?emc=edit_ty_20150217&nl=opinion&nlid=25453792&_r=0
[30] Agudelo L, Femenía T Orhan F, et al. (2014) Skeletal Muscle PGC-1a1 Modulates Kynurenine Metabolism and Mediates Resilience to Stress-Induced Depression. Cell http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140925131345.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[31] Tian X, Gala U, Zhang Y, et al. (2015) A Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Regulates Lysosomal Fusion with Endosomes and Autophagosomes and Is Required for Neuronal Homeostasis. PLoS Biology, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002103 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150326151646.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[32] Levitin, D.J. (2014) The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload, Penguin Group: New York, 165-168 www.delancyplace.com accessed Mar 16, 2015
[33] Schuck N, Gaschler R, Wenke D, et al. (2015) Medial Prefrontal Cortex Predicts Internally Driven Strategy Shifts. Neuron, 86(1), p331–340 http://www.cell.com/neuron/abstract/S0896-6273(15)00211-1?_returnURL=http%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS0896627315002111%3Fshowall%3Dtrue&cc=y= http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150327201708.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[34] Gowing L, Ali R, Allsop S, et al. (2015) Global statistics on addictive behaviours: 2014 status report. Addiction, 110 (6): 904 DOI: 10.1111/add.12899 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150512152746.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[35] Tremblay S, Pieper F, Sachs A, et al. (2014) Attentional Filtering of Visual Information by Neuronal Ensembles in the Primate Lateral Prefrontal Cortex. Neuron, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.11.021 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150107081701.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[36] Ahrens S, Jaramillo S, Yu K, et al. (2014) ErbB4 regulation of a thalamic reticular nucleus circuit for sensory selection. Nature Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1038/nn.3897 via http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141215114240.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[37] Evans J, Robinson C, Shi M, et al. (2015) The Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) Asef2 Promotes Dendritic Spine Formation via Rac Activation and Spinophilin-dependent Targeting. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 290 (16): 10295 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M114.605543 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150424105012.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[38] Klarer M, Arnold M, Gunther L, et al. (2014) Gut Vagal Afferents Differentially Modulate Innate Anxiety and Learned Fear. Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (21): 7067 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0252-14.2014 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140522104848.htm
[39] Wilhelm B, Mandad S, Truckenbrodt S, et al. (2014) Composition of isolated synaptic buttons reveals the amounts of vesicle trafficking proteins. Science 344 (6187) pp. 1023-1028 DOI: 10.1126/science.1252884 http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6187/1023
[40] Cossell L, Iacaruso M, Muir D, et al. (2015) Functional organization of excitatory synaptic strength in primary visual cortex. Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature14182 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150204134127.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[41] Maslow, A. H. (1954) Motivation and Personality, New York: Harper and Row.
[42] Mitchell I, Gillespie S, Abu-Akel A. (2015) Similar effects of intranasal oxytocin administration and acute alcohol consumption on socio-cognitions, emotions and behaviour: Implications for the mechanisms of action. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 55: 98 DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.04.018 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150519210251.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[43] Buffone A and Poulin M. (2014) Empathy, Target Distress, and Neurohormone Genes Interact to Predict Aggression for Others-Even Without Provocation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, DOI: 10.1177/0146167214549320 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141105112347.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[44] Beilock, S. (2015) How the Body Knows Its Mind: The Surprising Power of the Physical Environment to Influence How You Think and Feel, New York: Atria Books. ISBN-10: 1451626681 ISBN-13: 978-1451626681 via http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/01/150107150742.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[45] Vopat B, Klinge S, McClure P, et al. (2014) The Effects of Fitness on the Aging Process. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 22 (9): 576 DOI: 10.5435/JAAOS-22-09-576 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140827122634.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[46] Chaddock-Heyman L, Erickson K, Holtrop J, et al. (2014) Aerobic fitness is associated with greater white matter integrity in children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00584 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140819083429.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[47] Ward M, Taubes A, Chen R, et al. (2014) Early retinal neurodegeneration and impaired Ran-mediated nuclear import of TDP-43 in progranulin-deficient FTLD. Journal of Experimental Medicine, DOI: 10.1084/jem.20140214 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140825100037.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[48] NOVA. (2013) Earth from space. PBS, Feb, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/space/earth-from-space.html
[49] Smirnova A, Zorina Z, Obozova T, et al. (2014) Crows Spontaneously Exhibit Analogical Reasoning. Current Biology, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.063 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/12/141218131427.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[50] Robinson R (2014) For Motor Outputs, as for Sensory Inputs, Spike Timing [rhythm/pattern] Carries More Information than Spike Rate. PLOS/Biology 12(12):e1002019. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002019
[51] Greiff S, Wüstenberg S, Csapó B, et al. (2014). Domain-general problem solving skills and education in the 21st century. Educational Research Review, 13: 74 DOI: 10.1016/j.edurev.2014.10.002 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150210083649.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[52] Abbott A and Callaway E (2014) Nobel prize for decoding brain’s sense of place. Discoverers of brain’s navigation system get physiology Nobel. Nature, DOI:doi:10.1038/514153a http://www.nature.com/news/nobel-prize-for-decoding-brain-s-sense-of-place-1.16093?WT.ec_id=NEWS-20141007
[53] O’Keefe J and Dostrovsky J (1971) The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Research, 34(1), doi:10.1016/0006-8993(71)90358-1
[54] Hafting T, Fyhn M, Molder S, et al. (2005) Microstructure of a spatial map in the entorhinal cortex. Nature 436, 801-806 (11 August 2005) | doi:10.1038/nature03721
[55] Bleyer A, (2014) Most U.S. adults cannot donate a kidney due to preventable health problems, potential loss of income. Presentation at ASN Kidney Week 2014 November 11-16, Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA. ScienceDaily, 15 November 2014 www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141115083114.htm
[56] MSN News (2015) 71 percent of recruits, 17-24 year olds, do not qualified to enter military due to obesity, low education, or crime history. http://www.msn.com/en-us/news/video/why-are-majority-of-americans-unqualified-to-join-army/vi-BBdv5oB?ocid=iehphttp://www.msn.com/en-us/news/video/why-are-majority-of-americans-unqualified-to-join-army/vi-BBdv5oB?ocid=iehphttp://www.msn.com/en-us/news/video/why-are-majority-of-americans-unqualified-to-join-army/vi-BBdv5oB?ocid=iehp
[57] O’Conner A, (2015) Four out of five firefighters nationwide are overweight or obese, and roughly half of all firefighters who die in the line of duty each year are killed by heart attacks. The Firefighter Workout NYT, Mar 10.
[58] Ard, J (2015) Obesity in the US: what is the best role for primary care? BMJ 350:g7846 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g7846
[59] 59 Ritchie S, Tucker-Drob E, Deary I. (2014) A strong link between speed of visual discrimination and cognitive ageing. Current Biology, 24 (15): R681 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.012 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/08/140804123007.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[60] Krawczyk D, Kandalaft M, Didehbani N, et al. (2014) An investigation of reasoning by analogy in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00517 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150330084250.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[61] Martorana A and Koch G (2014) Is dopamine involved in Alzheimer's disease? Front. Aging Neurosci doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00252 http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fnagi.2014.00252/full?utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Neuroscience-w43-2014
[62] Aghajan Z, Acharya L, Moore J, et al. (2014) Impaired spatial selectivity and intact phase precession in two-dimensional virtual reality. Nature Neuroscience, DOI: 10.1038/nn.3884 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/11/141124162926.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
[63] West G, Drisdelle B, Konishi K, et al. (2015) Habitual action video game playing is associated with caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2952 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/search/video%252Bgames%252B%20jcode%3Aroyprsb http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/05/150519210303.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+Health+News%29
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - 2017 American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.