American Journal of Psychology and Cognitive Science
Articles Information
American Journal of Psychology and Cognitive Science, Vol.3, No.1, Feb. 2017, Pub. Date: Aug. 28, 2017
Effects of Violent Video Games and Violent Movies on Aggressive Behaviour of Children in Imo State, Nigeria
Pages: 1-7 Views: 2406 Downloads: 4883
[01] Leonard Chioma Onwukwe, Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.
[02] Vivian Chizoma Njemanze, Department of Sociology/Psychology/Criminology and Security Studies, Federal University, Ndufu-Alike Ikwo, Nigeria.
[03] Ethelbert Njoku, Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.
[04] Williams Chukwuemeka Obia, Department of Psychology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.
Video gaming and movie watching have firmly taken their roots in society and violence cum aggression has increased astronomically. The debate among researchers is whether or not engagement in violent movies and video games causes aggression. This study investigated the effects of violent video games and violent movies on aggressive behaviours of children. Two hypotheses were formulated. Thirty-eight participants were selected using simple random sampling and were randomly assigned into four groups. They comprised of 24 males and 24 females within the age range of five to seven years with a mean score of 6.37 and a standard deviation of 0.82. After the experimental manipulation, the participants were observed from a flank for 30 minutes and their responses were rated. The data obtained was analysed using a paired samples t-test and result proved that both violent video games and violent movies have a significant effect on aggressive behaviour of children. Based on the findings; we strongly recommend that children’s involvement in violent video games and movies be scrutinized.
Violent Video Games, Violent Movies, Aggressive Behaviour, Children, Imo State Nigeria
[01] Huesmann, L. R., & Taylor, L. D. (2006). The role of media violence in violent behaviour. Annual Review of Public Health, 27, 393-415.
[02] Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and social Psychology, 63, 575-582.
[03] VonSalich, M., Vogelgesang. J., Kristen. A., & Oppl. C., (2011) Preference for violent electronic games and aggressive behaviour among children: The beginning of downward spiral?, Media Psychology, 14 (3), 233-258.
[04] Adekoya, J. A and Ogunola, A. A. (2014) Childhood aggression in Ogun State, Nigeria: Fallout from violent movies viewing. Retrieved on 17/02/2017 from doi: 10.11648/
[05] Anderson, C. A. (2004) An update on the effects of violent video games: Journal of Adolescence, 27, 133-122.
[06] Anderson, C. A. Gentile, D. A. & Buckley, K. E. (2007). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: theory, research, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
[07] Kirsh, S. J. (2006). Children, adolescents, and media violence: A critical look at the research. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE.
[08] Möller I., Krahé B. (2009). Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: A longitudinal analysis. Aggressive Behaviour, 35, 75-89.
[09] Sestir, M. A., Bartholow B. D. (2010). Violent and nonviolent video games produce opposing effects on aggressive and prosocial outcomes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 934-942.
[10] Ybarra M. L., Huesmann L. R., Korchmaros J. D., & Reisner S. L. (2014). Cross-sectional associations between violent video and computer game playing and weapon carrying in a national cohort of children. Aggressive Behaviour, 40, 345-358.
[11] Lemmens, J. S., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter J. (2011). Psychosocial causes and consequences of pathological gaming. Computer and Human Behaviour, 27 (1), 144-152.
[12] Odukomaiya, E. I. (2014). Cartoons influence towards violence and aggression in school age children in Nigeria. Institute of Graduate Studies and Research, Eastern Mediterranean University. Retrieved on 24/02/2017 from
[13] Gentile, D. A., Li, D., Khoo A., Prot S., and Anderson C. A. (2014) Mediators and moderators of long term effects of violent video games on aggressive behaviour practice, thinking, and action. Journal of the American Medical Association: Paediatrics. 168 (5), 450-457.
[14] Shin, W. & Huh, J. (2011). Parental mediation of teenagers’ video game playing: Antecedents and consequences. New Media and Society, 13 (6): 945-962.
[15] Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A., Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 151-173.
[16] Eron, L. D., Huesmann L. R., Lefkowitz, M. M., & Walder, L. O. (1972). Does television violenc cause aggression? American Psychologist, 27 (4), 253-263.
[17] Przybylski, A. K.; Mishkin, A. F. (2015). How the quantity and quality of electronic gaming relates to adolescents’ academic engagement and psychosocial adjustment. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 5 (2), 145-156.
[18] Gentile, D. A., Lynch, P. J., Linder, D. A., & Walsh, (2004) The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviours, and school performance. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 5-22.
[19] Kuntsche, E. N. (2004). Hostility among adolescents in Switzerland? Multivariate relations between excessive media use and forms of violence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 34, 230-236.
[20] Wallenius M., Punamäki R. L., & Rimpelä A. (2007). Digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression in early adolescence: The roles of age, social intelligence, and parent-child communication. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36, 325-336.
[21] Gentile, D. A., & Gentile, J. R., (2008). Violent video games as exemplary teachers: A Conceptual analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 9, 127-141.
[22] Greitemeyer T., Mügge D. O. (2014). Video games do affect social outcomes: A meta-analytic review of the of violent and prosocial video game play. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 578-589.
[23] Pratchett, R. (2005). Digital play, digital lifestyles, Retrieved on 08-08-2016 from:
[24] Kaiser Family Foundation. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8 – 18 – year olds. Menlo Park, CA: Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., and Roberts, D. F.
[25] AESVI-ISPO. (2007). Genitori nell’era digitale: Il videogioco in famiglia [Parents in the digital age: Videogames in the family] in Milani et al (2015). Violent Video Games and Children’s Aggressive behaviours. Retrieved on 24/02/2017 from
[26] Browne, K. D., & Hamilton- Giahritsis, C. (2005). The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: a public–health approach. Journal of Forensic and Family Psychology, 365, 702-710.
[27] Council on Communications and Media (2009). Media violence. Pediatrics, 124, 1495-150326.
[28] Konijn, E. A., & Bijvank, M. N. (2007). I wish I were a warrior: The role of wishful identification in the effects of video games on aggression in adolescent boys. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 43 (4), 1038-1044.
[29] Carnagey, N. C., & Anderson, C. A. (2004). Violent video game exposure and aggression: A literature review. Minera Pschiatria, 45; 1-18.
[30] Dietz, T. C. (1998). An examination of violence and gender role portrayals in video games: implication for gender socialization and aggressive behaviour. Sex Roles, 38, 425-442.
[31] Cherry, K. (2016). What is aggression? Retrieved on 08-08-2016 from:
[32] Buss, A. H. (1961). The Psychology of aggression. New York: Wiley.
[33] Shaffer, D. R. (2009). Aggression and anti-social conduct. In Sordl M. & Leeds P. (Eds.), Social and personality development. Belmont, USA: Wardsworth, Carnage Learning Press: 9, pp. 285-296.
[34] Gabbey, A. C. Jewell. T. (2016). What is aggressive behaviour? Retrieved on 06-08-2016 from:
[35] Tolman, E. C. (1932). Purposive behaviour in animals and man. New York: Appleton-Century –Crofts.
[36] Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning theory. Englewood cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[37] Bandura, A (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. A social-cognitive theory. Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice
[38] Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359.
[39] Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994). A review and reformulation of social information processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101.
[40] Ferguson, C. J., & Dyck, D. (2012). Paradigm change in aggression research: The time has come to retire the General Aggression Model. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 17, 220-228.
[41] Hasan, Y., Bègue, L., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Viewing the world through “blood-red tinted glasses”: The hostile expectation bias mediates the link between violent video game exposure and aggression. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 953-956.
[42] DeWall, C. N., & Anderson, C. A. (2011). The General Aggression Model. In Understanding and Reducing Aggression, Violence, and Their Consequences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
[43] Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2002). Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the general aggression model. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1679-1686.
[44] Lemerise, E. A., & Arsenio, W. F. (2000). An integrated model of emotion processing and cognition in social information processing. Child Development, 71, 107-118.
[45] Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Coups, E. (2006). Statistics for Psychology. New Jersey: Prentice hall, Inc.
[46] Anderson, C. A. & Dill, K. E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings and behaviour in the laboratory and in life. Journal of personality & Social Psychology, 78 (4); 777-790.
[47] Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56, 477- 489.
[48] Irwin A. R., & Gross, A. M. (1995). Cognitive Tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behaviour in Young boys. Journal of Family Violence, 10 337-350.
[49] Ferguson C. J., San Miguel C., Garza, A., & Jerabeck, J. M. (2012). A longitudinal test of video game violence influences of dating and aggression: A 3- year longitudinal study of adolescents. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46 (2), 141-146.
[50] Markovits, H. (2013). Physical aggression facilitates social information processing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 1023-1026.
[51] Bandura, A., Ross, O., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation of film mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 577-582.
[52] Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children’s exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behaviour in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 2001-2021.
[53] Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E. M., Kasen, S., & Brooks, J. S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295, 2468–2471.
[54] Freedman, J. L (2007). Television violence and aggression: setting the record straight. The Media Institute, 1-17.
[55] Keller, J., Hurst, M., & Uskul, A. (2008). Prevention focused self-regulation and aggression. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 800-820.
[56] Onwukwe, L. C. (2014). The influence of reciprocity, self-esteem and gender on aggression, anxiety and depression among undergraduates in South Eastern Nigeria. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.