American Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Articles Information
American Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol.2, No.2, Mar. 2016, Pub. Date: Jul. 15, 2016
Nuclear Energy, the Past and the Future Challenges in Competition with Renewable Energy in Iran and the World
Pages: 6-11 Views: 1443 Downloads: 513
Authors
[01] Vahid Mirzaei Mahmoud Abadi, Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.
Abstract
In this research the past and the future of nuclear energy is studied while investigating the history behind this science. Introducing the renewable energy, this type of energy is compared to nuclear energy. We have investigated the advantages and disadvantages of renewable energies and nuclear energy. Finally, as an example the Lūt desert of Iran is presented and high potentials of this region for solar energy production are studied.
Keywords
Nuclear Energy, Renewable Energy, Lūt Desert, Solar Energy, Radionuclides
References
[01] H. WALRAVENS: Julius Klaproth (1783–1835). Leben und Werk. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz 1999. X, 230 p. (Orientalistik Bibliographien und Dokumentationen.3).
[02] E. Rutherford, ‘‘Radioactive Processes,’’ Proceedings of the Physical Society of London 18 (1903), 595-597.
[03] Trenn T J 1977 The Self-Splitting Atom. A History of the Rutherford-Soddy Collaboration (London: Taylor and Francis)
[04] J. Chadwick, “Possible Existence of a Neutron,” Nature 129, 312 (1932).
[05] Cockcroft and Walton. Proc. Roy. Soc. 136, 619 (1932); 137, 229 (1932).
[06] Irène Joliot-Curie (December 12, 1935). "Nobel Lecture: Artificial Production of Radioactive Elements".
[07] E. Fermi. Proc. Roy. Soc. 146, 483 (1934); 149, 522 (1935).
[08] O. Hahn and F. Strassmann Über den Nachweis und das Verhalten der bei der Bestrahlung des Urans mittels Neutronen entstehenden Erdalkalimetalle (On the detection and characteristics of the alkaline earth metals formed by irradiation of uranium with neutrons), Naturwissenschaften Volume 27, Number 1, 11-15 (1939). The authors were identified as being at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem. Received 22 December 1938.
[09] Ruth Lewin Sime, Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics (Berkeley & London: University of California Press, 1996).
[10] Einstein, A. (1905), Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig? Ann. d. Phys. 18, 639-641. Translated in. A. Lorentz et al. (1923), The Principle of Relativity.
[11] Hahn, O.; Strassmann, F. (1939). "Über den Nachweis und das Verhalten der bei der Bestrahlung des Urans mittels Neutronen entstehenden Erdalkalimetalle". Die Naturwissenschaften 27: 11.
[12] Leo Szilard, “Biographical Information,” February 22, 1960; University of Chicago, Office of Public Relations.
[13] Fossil fuel reserve data from CIA World Factbook.
[14] K. Branker, M. J. M. Pathak, J. M. Pearce, doi:10.1016/j.rser.2011.07.104 A Review of Solar Photovoltaic Levelized Cost of Electricity, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15, pp. 4470-4482 (2011).
[15] Comparing the Costs of Intermittent and Dispatchable Electricity-Generating Technologies", by Paul Joskow, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, September 2011.
[16] Marshall, Alan (2005) The Social and Ethical Aspects of Nuclear Waste, Electronic Green Journal 21, 1.
[17] Utah Nuclear Waste Summary, by Tricia Jack, Jordan Robertson, Center for Public Policy & Administration, University of Utah.
[18] "Managing nuclear waste: Options considered". DOE Factsheets. Department of Energy: Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Yucca Mountain Project. November 2003. Archived from the original on 2009-05-15.
[19] Vandenbosch, Robert, and Susanne E. Vandenbosch. 2007. Nuclear waste stalemate. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 247.
[20] Alley, W. M. & Alley, R. (2013) Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Cambridge University Press, New York.
[21] "U. S. Nuclear Industry Capacity Factors (1971 - 2009)". Nuclear Energy Institute. Retrieved 2013-10-26.
[22] "Wind Power: Capacity Factor, Intermittency, and what happens when the wind doesn't blow?". Renewable Energy Research Laboratory, University of Massachusetts Amherst. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
[23] Robert J. Duffy, Nuclear Politics in America: A History and Theory of Government Regulation, University Press of Kansas, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7006-0853-9.
[24] Hughes, Scott D. (April 1999). "Review of "Nuclear Politics in America: A History and Theory of Government Regulation" / "Critical Masses: Opposition to Nuclear Power in California, 1958-1978 / Licensed to Kill? The Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Shoreham Power Plant"". Environmental History. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
[25] Porter, Laurellen (September 1998). "Nuclear Politics in America: A History and Theory of Government Regulation. (Review)". Perspectives on Political Science. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
[26] IAEA – Safety Standards: Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design, SSR-2/1, IAEA 2012.
[27] NS-TAST-GD-009, Examination, Inspection, Maintenance and Testing of Items Important to Safety.
[28] "How nuclear power works". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 25 September 2008.
[29] Tsetkov, Pavel; Usman, Shoaib (2011). Krivit, Steven, ed. Nuclear Energy Encyclopedia: Science, Technology, and Applications. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. pp. 48; 85. ISBN 978-0-470-89439-2.
[30] "U. S. Nuclear Power Plants. General Statistical Information". Nuclear Energy Institute. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
[31] Waltar, A. E.; Reynolds, A. B (1981). Fast breeder reactors. New York: Pergamon Press. p. 853. ISBN 978-0-08-025983-3.
[32] "Pyroprocessing Technologies: RECYCLING USED NUCLEAR FUEL FOR A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY FUTURE". Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved 25 December 2012.
[33] "World Uranium Mining Production". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 2014-05-15.
[34] Uranium 2007: Resources, Production and Demand (Red Book) (2008) OECD-NEA and IAEA.
[35] Heavy Water Reactors: Status and Projected Development, Technical Reports Series No. 407, International Atomic Energy Agency, 2002, STI/DOC/010/407 (ISBN: 9201115024). PHWR data is taken from Chapter 6, HWR Fuel Cycles.
[36] "Nuclear Fuel Cycle World Nuclear Transport Institute". Wnti.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
[37] "IAEA-TECDOC-1450 Thorium Fuel Cycle-Potential Benefits and Challenges". International Atomic Energy Agency. May 2005. Retrieved 2009-03-23.
[38] BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013.
[39] Lackner, Klaus S. et al. (2012). "The urgency of the development of CO2 capture from ambient air". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 109 (33): 13156–62. Bibcode: 2012PNAS. 10913156L. doi:10.1073/pnas.1108765109. PMID 22843674. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
[40] Ben Sills (29 August 2011). "Solar May Produce Most of World's Power by 2060, IEA Says". Bloomberg.
[41] International Atomic Energy Agency. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Electricity Chains: Assessing the Difference [Online]. 2001 [cited August 1, 2010]; Available from http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull422/article4.pdf
[42] Hansen, J., Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, and V. Oina s, “Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 97, 9875-9880, doi:10.1073/pnas.170278997, 2000.
[43] Acker, R. H., D. M. Kammen. (1996). The quiet (energy) revoLūt ion: Analysing the dissemination of photovoltaic power systems in Kenya. Energy Policy, 24 (1), 81-111.
[44] Anderson, T. and Doig, A. (2000). Community planning and management of energy supplies – international experience. Renewable Energy, 19 (2000), 325-331.
[45] Barnett, A. (1990). The diffusion of energy technology in the rural areas of developing countries: A synthesis of recent experience. World Development, 18 (4), 539-553.
[46] Best, G., B. van Campen, B. van der Plas, and R. Zepeda. (2001). Renewable energy for sustainable agriculture and rural development in Honduras. Renewable Energy for Development, 14 (2/3), 4-5.
[47] Balakrishnan, L. (2000). Renewable energy as income generation for women. Renewable Energy, 19 (2000), 319-324.
[48] Bony, l .et al. (2010), Achieving Low-Cost Solar PV: Industry Workshop Recommendations for Near-Term Balance of System Cost Reductions, Rocky Mountain Institute, Co. http://www.rmi.org/Content/Files/ BOS Report.pdf
[49] Grätzel, M. and O’Regan, B. (1991), “A Low-Cost, High-E£ciency Solar Cell Based on Dyesensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films”, Nature, Vol. 353, pps 737-740.
[50] Mark Z. Jacobson et al.: 100% clean and renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) all-sector energy roadmaps for the 50 United States. In: Energy and Environmental Science (2015), doi: 10.1039/C5EE01283J.
[51] Devabhaktuni V, Alam M, Depuru SSSR, Green IIRC, Nims D, Near C. Solar energy: trends and enabling technologies. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 2013; 19: 555–64.
[52] Hernandez RR, Easter SB, Murphy-Mariscal ML, Maestre FT, Tavassoli M, Allen EB, Barrows CW, Belnap J, Ochoa-Hueso R, Ravi S, Allen MF. Environmental impacts of utility-scale solar energy. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev 2014; 29: 766–79.
[53] Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part I: Technologies, energy resources, quantities and areas of infrastructure, and materials. Energy Policy 2011; 39: 1154–69.
[54] Delucchi MA, Jacobson MZ. Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies. Energy Policy 2011; 39: 1170–90.
[55] Chwieduk D. Availability of solar radiation on the Earth. Sol Energy Build 2014: 21–62.
[56] Inman RH, Pedro HTC, Coimbra CFM. Solar forecasting methods for renewable energy integration. Prog Energy Combust Sci 2013; 39: 535–76.
[57] ARENA REPORT, Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2012: An Overview.
[58] http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2013/11/Dasht-e_Lūt_salt_desert_Iran
[59] Ministry Of Energy of IR IRAN Renewable Energy Organization of Iran- (SUNA), By: Dr Ahmad Kahrobaian Head of Research and New Technology Office-SUNA.
[60] Solar Energy Villages for the Middle East. http://www.foeme.org/index_images/dinamicas/publications/publ41_1.pdf
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.