American Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Articles Information
American Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, Vol.4, No.4, Dec. 2018, Pub. Date: Dec. 23, 2018
Anthropogenic Disaster: Petrol Bomb Explosion Consequences Analysis in Bangladesh
Pages: 64-76 Views: 1208 Downloads: 452
[01] Tazmul Ahosan Azad, Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh.
[02] Irteja Hasan, Department of GIS and Earth Observation, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh.
[03] Raju Ahmmed, Department of Food Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering and Technology, Gazipur, Bangladesh.
[04] Milton Kumar Saha, Department of Disaster Risk Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Patuakhali, Bangladesh.
[05] Sharmin Jahan Moni, Department of Soil and Environmental Science, University of Barishal, Barishal, Bangladesh.
[06] Sumaiya Chowdhury, Department of Soil, Water and Environment, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
In the recent past, petrol bomb explosion in Bangladesh has been brought combat trauma to the innocent civilian. The purpose of this study is to explore the consequences of petrol bomb explosion and find out the probable solution to reduce its effect. The semi-structured questionnaire survey for primary and secondary data collection; focus group discussion and key informants interview method were followed. This research has been conducted in different city of Bangladesh between 1st January 2016 and 30th June 2016. A total 200 respondents were purposively selected in order to face to face interview. In addition to, 10 focus group discussion and 20 key informant interviews were performed to collect qualitative information. The secondary data was collected from secondary sources. Over 95 percent of the respondents reported that the hartal/aborodh (Strike/Blockade) was the major cause of petrol bomb explosions and 87 percent was reported about the establishing political dominance. Petrol bomb explosion has a significant impact on economic, social, and health sector. The economic impact has mainly resulted in individual level (96 percent), 87 percent on Government sector, and 80 percent on the industrial sector. Besides this, social consequences have increased the criminal activity (86 percent) and the unemployment rate (78 percent) as well as created fear/anxiety (73 percent) in the society. Additionally, the major health impact on the burn (98 percent), death (85 percent), and post-traumatic stress disorder (77 percent). Therefore, the establishment of stabilizing political practices, publicized agreement on expected electoral conduct, protection of democratic space for opposition parties and civil society, and strong local and international election monitoring procedure will helpful to reduce the political violence.
Anthropogenic, Disaster, Petrol Bomb, Violence, Bangladesh
[01] DispatchLIVE. (2015, February 4). Seven killed in Bangladesh bomb attack. p. n.pag. Retrieved from
[02] BBC (2015, February 7). Bangladesh firebomb attacks on bus and truck kill nine. p. n.pag. Retrieved from
[03] The Hindu. (2015, January 24). At least 34 dead in Bangladesh violence. p. n.pag. Retrieved from
[04] The Guardian. (2015, Jaunary 26). 30 dead as Bangladesh political violence escalates. p. n.pag. Retrieved from
[05] Amnesty International (2015, Jaunary 29). Bangladesh: Excessive police force not the answer to horrific petrol bomb attacks. p. n.pag. Retrieved from
[06] The Daily Star. (2015, June 4). Petrol bomb on bus again in Bangladesh. p. n.pag. Retrieved from
[07] Ahmad, A. (2014). Bangladesh in 2013: Year of Confusions, Confrontations, Concerns. Asian Survey, 54 (1), 190-198. doi:
[08] The Daily Star. (2013). Political violence: Serious threat to human security. Retrieved from
[09] Ahmed, M. (1984). Bangladesh: Era of Sheikh MujiburRahman (Vol. 93): F. Steiner.
[10] The commonwealth youth programme. (2013). Political violence affects the Bangladesh economy. Retrieved from
[11] Anglin, D. G. (1998). International election monitoring: The African experience. African Affairs, 97 (389), 471-495. doi:
[12] ASK. (2013). Latest Figures | Political Violence Jan – 8th December 2013
[13] The Daily Star. (2013). Transport in Tatters. Retrieved from
[14] BBS, Bangladesh Statistics 2017, M. o. P. Statistics and Informatics Division (SID), Editor. 2017.
[15] Benmeir, P., S. Lusthaus, R. Talisman, D. Ad-El, A. Sagi, A. Weinberg, A. Eldad, A. Neuman, and M. Wexler. (1994). Terrorist bombing with a ‘Molotov cocktail’inside travelling cars: an old weapon for a new burn syndrome? Burns, 20 (3), 248-250. doi: (94) 90192-9.
[16] BNP. (2018). Information and service in single window. Bangladesh National Portal. Retrieved from
[17] Bourne, P. A. (2010). Unconventional political participation in a middle-income developing country. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 2 (2), 196-203.
[18] Chand, V. K. (1997). Democratisation from the outside in: NGO and international efforts to promote open elections. Third World Quarterly, 18 (3), 543-562. doi:
[19] The Daily Star. (2013). Violent politics bad for education. Retrieved from
[20] Chowdhury, M. H. (2003). Violence, politics and the state in Bangladesh. Conflict, Security & Development, 3 (2), 265-276. doi:
[21] Cox, C. W. (2008). Manmade disasters: a historical review of terrorism and implications for the future. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 13 (1). doi:
[22] Dalton, R. J. (2008). Citizenship norms and the expansion of political participation. Political studies, 56 (1), 76-98. doi:
[23] Datta, S. (2005). Political violence in Bangladesh: trends and causes. Strategic Analysis, 29 (3), 427-447.
[24] Diemer, M. A. (2012). Fostering marginalized youths’ political participation: Longitudinal roles of parental political socialization and youth sociopolitical development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 50 (1-2), 246-256. doi:
[25] Elklit, J. and P. Svensson. (1997). What makes elections free and fair? Journal of Democracy, 8 (3), 32-46. doi:
[26] Gill, P., K. Stewart, E. Treasure, and B. Chadwick. (2008). Methods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. British dental journal, 204 (6), 291.
[27] Gray, C. L. and V. Mueller. (2012). Natural disasters and population mobility in Bangladesh. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201115944.
[28] Hagerty, D. T. (2008). Bangladesh in 2007: Democracy interrupted, political and environmental challenges ahead. Asian Survey, 48 (1), 177-183.
[29] Hossain, M. L., M. K. Hossain, and S. R. Das. (2014). Vulnerability of Bangladesh to natural and anthropogenic disasters: Pothi. com.
[30] HRW, Democracy in the Crossfire: Opposition Violence and Government Abuses in the 2014 Pre- and PostElection Period in Bangladesh 2014.
[31] Islam, M. S. (2015). Fiscal Policy and Hartal in South-East Asian Countries: A Case Study on Bangladesh from 2013 to 2014. International Journal of African and Asian Studies, 14, 51-56.
[32] Islam, S. S. (1986). The rise of the civil–military bureaucracy in the state apparatus of Bangladesh. Asian Thought and Society, 11 (31), 39-54.
[33] Jahan, R. (2012). The Parliament of Bangladesh. Challenges and Way Forward. CPD-CMI Brief.
[34] Jamaluddin, M. I., Forensic Analysis of Gasoline in Molotov Cocktail Using Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry and Chemometric Procedures. 2014, UniversitiSains Malaysia.
[35] Jha, M. K., Natural and anthropogenic disasters: an overview, in Natural and Anthropogenic Disasters. 2010, Springer. p. 1-16.
[36] Khan, S. E. (2017). Bangladesh: The Changing Dynamics of Violent Extremism and the Response of the State. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 28 (1), 191-217. doi:
[37] The Daily Star. (2014). Economic implications of political instability. Retrieved from
[38] Kolaitis, D. I. An experimental investigation of improvised incendiary devices used in urban riots: The “Molotov cocktail”. inFire Safety Science—Proceedings of the Second International Symposium. 2015.
[39] Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research methodology: Methods and techniques: New Age International.
[40] Kumar, R., Research Methodologies: a step-by-step guide for beginners. 2nd. 2005, London: SAGE Publications Ltd.
[41] Likert, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of psychology.
[42] Financial Times. (2014). Bangladesh garment trade warns on impact of political unrest. Retrieved from
[43] Martín-Alberca, C., J. Ferrando, and C. García-Ruiz. (2013). Anionic markers for the forensic identification of Chemical Ignition Molotov Cocktail composition. Science and Justice, 53 (1), 49-54. doi:
[44] MoF, Bangladesh Economy Review 2017, M.o.F. Finance Division, Editor. 2017: Tejgaon, Dhaka.
[45] Moniruzzaman, M. (2009a). Parliamentary democracy in Bangladesh: An evaluation of the parliament during 1991–2006. Commonwealth & Comparative Politics, 47 (1), 100-126. doi:
[46] Moniruzzaman, M. (2009b). Party politics and political violence in Bangladesh: issues, manifestation and consequences. South Asian Survey, 16 (1), 81-99. doi:
[47] Moten, A. R. (1990). Practices of personal rule: HM Ershad in Bangladesh. Asian Thought and Society, 15 (44), 176-192.
[48] Mugenda, O. M. (1999). Research methods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches: African Centre for Technology Studies.
[49] Neuman, W. L. (2013). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches: Pearson education.
[50] Obi, C. I. (2008). International election observer missions and the promotion of democracy: Some lessons from Nigeria's 2007 elections. Politikon, 35 (1), 69-86. doi:
[51] Odhikar. 2015. BANGLADESH: HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT 2015.
[52] Palinkas, L. A., S. M. Horwitz, C. A. Green, J. P. Wisdom, N. Duan, and K. Hoagwood. (2015). Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42 (5), 533-544. doi:
[53] Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, 3rd edn Sage. Thousand Oaks, California.
[54] Rahman, K. M. (2014). Management and Economy in Hartals: The Case of Bangladesh. Journal of Comparative International Management, 17 (1).
[55] Rahman, R., Z. R. Samadder, I. I. Khan, and T. R. Chowdhury. (2018). Involvement of street children in the political violence of Bangladesh. Children's Geographies, 1-12.
[56] Sandelowski, M. (2000). Combining qualitative and quantitative sampling, data collection, and analysis techniques in mixed‐method studies. Research in nursing & health, 23 (3), 246-255. doi: (200006) 23:3<246: AID-NUR9>3.0.CO;2-H.
[57] Sapsford, R. and V. Jupp. (2006). Data collection and analysis: Sage.
[58] Shamsuddoha, M. and R. K. Chowdhury. (2007). Climate change impact and disaster vulnerabilities in the coastal areas of Bangladesh. COAST Trust, Dhaka.
[59] Stolle, D. and M. Hooghe. (2009). Shifting Inequalities? Patterns of exclusion and inclusion im emerging forms of political participation.
[60] Thomas, H. (2001). The Spanish civil war: Random House Digital, Inc.
[61] Tsaroom, S. (1986). Molotov cocktails and similar devices used by terrorists in Israel. Journal of Energetic Materials, 4 (1-4), 325-338. doi:
[62] White, S. C. (1999). NGOs, civil society, and the state in Bangladesh: The politics of representing the poor. Development and change, 30 (2), 307-326. doi:
[63] Wilson, J. M. (2006). Law and order in an emerging democracy: Lessons from the reconstruction of Kosovo’s police and justice systems. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605 (1), 152-177. doi:
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.