Bioscience and Bioengineering
Articles Information
Bioscience and Bioengineering, Vol.1, No.3, Aug. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 9, 2015
Wall Shear Stress Analysis Using Finite Volume Method for Blood Flow in Irregular Stenotic Arteries
Pages: 69-84 Views: 1654 Downloads: 626
Authors
[01] Sina Pasha Zanous, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran.
[02] Rouzbeh Shafaghat, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noushirvani University of Technology, Babol, Iran.
[03] Qadir Esmaeili, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.
Abstract
Blood flow through a stenosis artery may have different flow characteristics and produce different forces acting on the plaque surface and artery wall. The present study investigates the flow through the 55% (by area reduction) stenosed artery, both numerically and experimentally. First, the experimental study is carried out on a rigid asymmetric model of a stenosed artery. Afterward the flows are numerically simulated for the same flow rates, geometry, and fluid properties and to make sure the numerical results are reliable, the experimental and numerical pressure drop are compared. Finally, an ideal symmetric stenosed artery with same stenosed severely is numerically studied and the results of two numerical simulations are compared. The governing differential equations of blood flow are discretized using finite-volume method in the generalized body-fitted coordinates. In addition, an elliptic method for nearly orthogonal grid generation is presented in numerical study. The aim of this study is isolate the effect of actual stenosed geometry on the flow characteristics such as, wall shear stress (WSS), length of separation regions, swirl flow and maximum velocity distribution at different Reynolds numbers by comparing with ideal symmetric stenosis. It is pointed out that these probabilities are much higher for asymmetric model than symmetric one. Based on our results, high and oscillatory WSS values play a significant role in the destruction of endothelium. Furthermore, it is shown that WSS exceeds the critically reported value, 420 dyne/cm2, only at asymmetric model in maximum flow rate, that causes damage to the endothelium cell layer
Keywords
Arterial Disease, Post-Stenotic, Computational Domains, Newtonian, General Curvilinear Coordinate, Wall Shear Stress
References
[01] F. Smith, The separating flow through a severely constricted symmetric tube. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 90 (1979) 725-754.
[02] M. Deshpande, D. Giddens, and R. Mabon, Steady laminar flow through modelled vascular stenoses. Journal of Biomechanics 9 (1976) 165-174.
[03] D.F. Young, and F.Y. Tsai, Flow characteristics in models of arterial stenoses—I. Steady flow. Journal of Biomechanics 6 (1973) 395-410.
[04] D.N. Ku, Blood flow in arteries. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 29 (1997) 399-434.
[05] Y. Tardy, N. Resnick, T. Nagel, M. Gimbrone, and C. Dewey, Shear stress gradients remodel endothelial monolayers in vitro via a cell proliferation-migration-loss cycle. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 17 (1997) 3102-3106.
[06] R. Mittal, S. Simmons, and F. Najjar, Numerical study of pulsatile flow in a constricted channel. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 485 (2003) 337-378.
[07] H. Jung, J.W. Choi, and C.G. Park, Asymmetric flows of non-Newtonian fluids in symmetric stenosed artery. Korea-Australia Rheology Journal 16 (2004) 101-108.
[08] F. Abraham, M. Behr, and M. Heinkenschloss, Shape optimization in steady blood flow: a numerical study of non-Newtonian effects. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 8 (2005) 127-137.
[09] Y. Zhang, T. Furusawa, S.F. Sia, M. Umezu, and Y. Qian, Proposition of an outflow boundary approach for carotid artery stenosis CFD simulation. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering 16 (2013) 488-494.
[10] S. Glagov, C. Zarins, D. Giddens, and D. Ku, Hemodynamics and atherosclerosis. Insights and perspectives gained from studies of human arteries. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 112 (1988) 1018-1031.
[11] A.M. Shaaban, and A.J. Duerinckx, Wall shear stress and early atherosclerosis: a review. American Journal of Roentgenology 174 (2000) 1657-1665.
[12] C.K. Zarins, D.P. Giddens, B. Bharadvaj, V.S. Sottiurai, R.F. Mabon, and S. Glagov, Carotid bifurcation atherosclerosis. Quantitative correlation of plaque localization with flow velocity profiles and wall shear stress. Circulation research 53 (1983) 502-514.
[13] M.H. Friedman, G.M. Hutchins, C. Brent Bargeron, O.J. Deters, and F.F. Mark, Correlation between intimal thickness and fluid shear in human arteries. Atherosclerosis 39 (1981) 425-436.
[14] D.N. Ku, D.P. Giddens, C.K. Zarins, and S. Glagov, Pulsatile flow and atherosclerosis in the human carotid bifurcation. Positive correlation between plaque location and low oscillating shear stress. Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology 5 (1985) 293-302.
[15] E.M. Pedersen, I. Kristensen, and A. Yoganathan, Wall shear stress and early atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta in young adults. European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery 13 (1997) 443-451.
[16] T.J. Pedley, The fluid mechanics of large blood vessels, Cambridge University Press Cambridge, 1980.
[17] C.A.J. Fletcher, Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics 2, Springer, 1991.
[18] K.A. Hoffmann, and S.T. Chiang, Computational fluid dynamics for engineers, Engineering Education System Wichita, Kansas,, USA, 1993.
[19] V. Akcelik, B. Jaramaz, and O. Ghattas, Nearly Orthogonal Two-Dimensional Grid Generation with Aspect Ratio Control. Journal of Computational Physics 171 (2001) 805-821.
[20] R. Lehtimäki, An algebraic boundary orthogonalization procedure for structured grids. International journal for numerical methods in fluids 32 (2000) 605-618.
[21] M. Farrashkhalvat, and J. Miles, Basic Structured Grid Generation: With an introduction to unstructured grid generation, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
[22] A. Bejan, Convection heat transfer, John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
[23] J.H. Ferziger, and M. Perić, Computational methods for fluid dynamics, Springer Berlin, 1996.
[24] A.T. Golpayeghani, S. Najarian, and M. Movahedi, Numerical simulation of pulsatile flow with newtonian and non-newtonian behavior in arterial stenosis. Iranian Cardiovascular Research Journal 1 (2008) 167-174.
[25] F. Zhan, Y.-B. Fan, and X.-Y. Deng, Effect of swirling flow on platelet concentration distribution in small-caliber artificial grafts and end-to-end anastomoses. Acta Mechanica Sinica 27 (2011) 833-839.
[26] W. Gutstein, and D. Schneck, < i> In vitro boundary layer studies of blood flow in branched tubes. Journal of atherosclerosis research 7 (1967) 295-299.
[27] H. Scharfstein, W.H. Gutstein, and L. Lewis, Changes of boundary layer flow in model systems implications for initiation of endothelial injury. Circulation research 13 (1963) 580-584.
[28] J. Kirk, Evolution of the Atherosclerotic Plaque. Journal of Gerontology 19 (1964) 522-522.
[29] J. Fox, and A. Hugh, Localization of atheroma: a theory based on boundary layer separation. British heart journal 28 (1966) 388.
[30] Y. Papaharilaou, D. Doorly, and S. Sherwin, The influence of out-of-plane geometry on pulsatile flow within a distal end-to-side anastomosis. Journal of Biomechanics 35 (2002) 1225-1239.
[31] B. Vahidi, and N. Fatouraee, Large deforming buoyant embolus passing through a stenotic common carotid artery: A computational simulation. Journal of Biomechanics 45 (2012) 1312-1322.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - 2017 American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.