Chemistry Journal
Articles Information
Chemistry Journal, Vol.4, No.3, Sep. 2018, Pub. Date: Aug. 20, 2018
Influence of Carboxymethyl Cellulose on the Preparation and Characterization of Liquid Detergent
Pages: 50-55 Views: 1569 Downloads: 3527
[01] Olugbenga Oludayo Oluwasina, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria.
The increasing pressure of reducing the cost of production, without adversely affecting the overall performance of the products to satisfaction of the consumers are some of the propelling factors for production improvement in the industry. In this research, the influence of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) on the properties of liquid detergent was investigated. Chromolaena odorata Carboxymethyl cellulose-detergent (CO-CMC-Det), Penniseteum purpureum Carboxymethyl cellulose (PP-CMC-Det), Ananas comosus Carboxymethyl cellulose (AC-CMC-Det), Detergent grade-CMC-Det (Detgrade-CMC-Det) and without CMC (Water–Det) were prepared after neutralization reaction between sodium hydroxide and linear alkylbenzene sulphonic acid. The viscosity analysis of the detergents revealed that Water–Det had 2.39, CO-CMC-Det had 4.77, PP-CMC-Det had 4.84, AC-CMC-Det had 4.25, while Detgrade-CMC-Det had 5.12. All the detergents had a specific gravity of 1.03 except Water-Det which had 1.01. All the detergents fortified with CMC had better cleaning performance of over 25% while Water-Det had 17.50%. The biodegradability test using biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) as the index indicated that degradation of the detergent recorded a drop in BOD which ranged from 1.18 to 2.29 in the first month and then ranged from 0.01 to 0.04 after seven months. The research revealed that addition of CMC could affect the performance of detergent positively
Detergent, Carboxymethyl Cellulose, Cleaning-Ability, Biodegradable, Anti-redeposition
[01] Aghel, N., E. Moghimipour and A. R. Dana, 2007. Formulation of a Herbal Shampoo using Total Saponins of Acanthophyllum Squarrosum. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 6 (3): 167-172.
[02] Ameh, O. A., T. M. Isa and K. E. Udoka, 2010. Biodegradable Detergents from Azadirachta Indica (neem) Seed Oil. Leonardo Electronic Journal of Practices and Technologies. 16, 69-74.
[03] Azeez, O., S. and G. S. Abegunde. 2016. Production and characterization of liquid detergents from some agricultural waste products. Nigerian Journal of Technology 35 (1): 60-65.
[04] Barbucci, R., A. Magnani, and M. Consumi, 2000. Swelling behavior of carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels in relation to cross-linking, pH, and charge density. Macromolecules. 33 (20): 7475-7480.
[05] Basavaraja, C., K. J. Kim, and S. D Huh, 2013 Characterization and temperature-dependent conductivity of polyaniline nanocomposites encapsulating gold nanoparticles on the surface of carboxymethyl cellulose. Materials Science and Engineering B 178: 167-173.
[06] Benmouhoub, N., N. Simmonet, N. Agoudjil, and T. Coradin, 2008. Aqueous sol–gel routes to biocomposite capsules and gels. Green Chemistry, 10 (9): 957-964.
[07] Abeliotis, K., C. Candan, C. Amberg, A. Ferri, M. Osset, J. Owens and R. Stamminger, 2015. Impact of water hardness on consumers’ perception of laundry washing result in five European countries. Int. J. Consum. Stud., 39, 60-66.
[08] Biswal, D. R., and R. P. Singh, 2004. Characterisation of carboxymethyl cellulose and polyacrylamide graft copolymer. Carbohyd Polym, 57: 379-387.
[09] Cooper, D. G. and B. G. Goldenberg, 1987. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 53: 224.
[10] Diederik, S., D. Helen, F. Rosa, H. Jeremy, K. Holger, H. K. Paul, S. Nathalie, S. Stephen and W. Tanja, 2007. Probabilistic risk assessment for linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in sewage sludge used on agricultural soil, Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 49, 245-259.
[11] Dolz, M., J. Jiménez, M. J. Hernández, J. Delegido, and A. Casanovas, 2007. Flow and thixotropy of non-contaminating oil drilling fluids formulated with bentonite and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose. J. Petroleum Sci. Eng., 57: 294-302.
[12] Fijan, R., M. Basile, S. S. Turk, Z. MAgar, M. Zigon, and R. Lapasin, 2009. A study of rheological and molecular weight properties of recycled polysaccharides used as thickeners in textile printing. Carbohydrate Polymers, 76: 8-16.
[13] Heinze T. and A. Koschella. (2005): Carboxymethyl Ethers of Cellulose and Starch – A Review Macromol. Symp. 223: 13-39.
[14] Heydarzadeh, H. D., G. D. Najafpour and A. A. Nazari-Moghaddam, 2009. Catalyst-Free Conversion of Alkali Cellulose to Fine Carboxymethyl Cellulose at Mild Conditions. World Applied Sciences Journal, 6 (4): 564-569.
[15] Jiang, L. Y., Y. B. Li, X. J. Wang, L. Zhang, J. Q. Wen, and M. Gong, 2008. Preparation and properties of nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/carboxymethyl cellulose composite scaffold. Carbohydrate Polymers, 74 (3): 680-684.
[16] Kharkate S. K., V. Y. Karadbhajne, and B. B. Gogte. 2005. Some Resin Based Ecofriendly Liquid Detergents. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 64: 752-755.
[17] Kumar A., and R. R. Mali 2010. Evaluation of Prepared Shampoo Formulations and to compare Formulated Shampoo with Marketed Shampoos. 3 (1): 120-126.
[18] Kulkarni, R. V., and B. Sa, 2008. Evaluation of pH-sensitivity and drug release characteristics of (polyacrylamide-grafted-xanthan)-carboxymethyl cellulose based ph-sensitive interpenetrating network hydrogel beads. Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, 34 (12): 1406-1414.
[19] Latif, A., T. Anwar, and M. A. Farrukh, 2005. Two Step Synthesis and Characterization of Carboxymethyl cellulose from Rayon Grade Wood Pulp and Cotton Linter. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society 10: 95-102.
[20] Marci, G., G. Mele, L. Palmisano, P. Pulito, and A. Sannino, 2006. Environmentally sustainable production of cellulose-based superabsorbent hydrogels. Green Chemistry, 8 (5): 439-444.
[21] Mohanty, A. K., C. R. Simmons, and M. C. Wiener, 2003. Inhibition of tobacco etch virus protease activity by detergents. Protein Expression and Purification, 27: 109-114.
[22] Naganthran, A., M. Masomian, R. Z. N. R. Abd-Rahman, M. S. M. Ali, and Nooh, M. H, 2017. Improving the efficiency of new automatic dishwashing detergent formulation by addition of thermostable lipase, protease and amylase. Molecules, 22 (1577): 1-18.
[23] Oluwasina, O. O. L. Lajide, and B. J. Owolabi, 2015. Sodium hydroxide-anthraquinone and sodium hydroxide -anthraquinone-ethanol pulping and their prepared carboxymethyl cellulose. FUTA Journal of Research in Sciences, 2: 333-346.
[24] Sitaram, D. 2003. Laundry Detergents – Moving from Solids to Liquids. Excerpted from the paper published in Chemical Weekly, Fragrance Applications, International Flavours &and Fragrances India Limited. August 12.
[25] Smulders, E. 2002. Laundry Detergents, Wiley-VCH, Verlag-Germany. 130-161. Soc. Chem. Ind. 65: 264.
[26] T230om-99 (1999): Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI). Standard for Viscosity Pulp (capillary viscometer method).
[27] Thompson D., C. Lemaster, R. Allen and J. Whitta. 1985. Evaluation of Relative Shampoo Detergency. J. Soc. Cosmet Chem., 36: 271-286.
[28] Wei Li., B. Sun. and W. Peiyi, 2009. Study on hydrogen bonds of carboxymethyl cellulose sodium film with two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Polymers 78: 454-461.
[29] Xiaojia, H., W. Shaozu, F. Dongkang, and N. Jinren, 2009. Preparation of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose from paper sludge. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 84 (3): 427-434.
[30] Yangxin, Y. U., Z. Jin, and E A., Bayly. 2008. Development of surfactants and builders in detergent formulations. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 16 (4): 517-527.
[31] Yi, J. Z., and L. M. Zhang, L. 2007. Biodegradable blend films based on two polysaccharide derivatives and their use as ibuprofen-releasing matrices. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103 (6): 3553-3559.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.