International Journal of Animal Biology
Articles Information
International Journal of Animal Biology, Vol.1, No.5, Oct. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 23, 2015
Attraction of Female and Male Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Bait Spray Applications for Reduction of Pest Populations
Pages: 225-230 Views: 4009 Downloads: 1545
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of the bait spray applications in controlling of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) on fruits and vegetables under field conditions and to make recommendations on how to move this package forward to all stakeholders. Because of concerns over damage to the environment and human health by insecticide cover sprays for fruit fly control, the bait spray technique has been developed. Bait spray applications as an “attract and kill” technology; attract both male and female fruit flies, making them more effective than the male attractant method for field pest management. Bait stations consist of an attractant, a killing agent and a device which contains both of these ingredients. Most bait sprays used in few parts of the world still rely on sugar and molasses, but in many countries the most commonly used are protein hydrolysate, acid hydrolysate and yeast autolysate. The bait speckles are discovered by the ever-foraging fruit flies as these move about the trees each day, and when the pests feed on the very small amount of organically-accepted active ingredient of an insecticide, these are killed. The categories of bait stations may be device carrying on a combination of insecticide and bait in a single formulation or device with a separated bait and insecticide. Fruit flies are lured to the bait and ingest a lethal dose of insecticide or fruit flies get in contact with a lethal dose of insecticide. Bait spray application to knock down localized fruit flies population and infestation is an important component of the pest eradication and increasing the effectiveness of the program that can be one of the most suitable alternatives. A further development and validation of bait sprays require an area-wide approach in view of fly’s migration, fruit infestation and cost effectiveness. Further research is needed to optimize bait stations, the development of long-lasting attractants and killing agents, the safe use of killing agents, the development of stronger female attractants and improved bait station devices that are ideally biodegradable. As an output, bait spray alone is not a stand-alone control method for effective fruit fly suppression, but should be integrated with a series of other control methods. The stakeholders including researchers, fruits and vegetables producers and industry, and action programs are expected to contribute by facilitating research and development of fruit fly bait station technology.
Suppression, Bait Spray, Fruit Fly, Bait Stations, Attractant
[01] Allwood, A.J., Chinajariyawong, A., Drew, R.A.I., Hamacek, E.L., Hancock, D.L., Hangsawad, C., Jipanin, J.C., Jirasurat, M., Kong Krong, C., Kritsaneepaiboon, S., Leong, C.T.S. and Vijaysegaran, S. 1999. Host Plants for fruit flies (Diptera; Tephritidae) in South East Asia. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement No. 7: 1-92.
[02] Chinajariyawong, A.I., Kritsaneepaiboon, S. and Drew, R.A.I. 2003. Efficacy of Protein Bait Sprays in Controlling Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) Infesting Angled Luffa and Bitter Gourd In Thailand. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 51 (1): 7-15.
[03] Conway, H.E. and Forrester, O.T. 2011. Efficacy of ground spray application of bait sprays with malathion or spinosad on Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Texas citrus. J. Econ. Entomol., 104 (2): 452-458.
[04] Drew, R.A.I. 1992. Overview of fruit flies. International Training Course Fruit Flies. MARDI, Kuala Lumpur. 4th-15th May 1992. 5 p.
[05] International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). 2009. Working Material: Development of Bait Stations for Fruit Fly Suppression in Support of SIT. Report and recommendations of the consultants group meeting organized by the Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Mazatlán, Mexico, 30 October- 1 November 2008. p. 15.
[06] McQuate, G.T. 2009. Effectiveness of GF-120NF Fruit Fly Bait as a suppression tool for Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 133 (6): 444-448.
[07] McQuate, G.T., Sylva, C.D. and Jang, E.B. 2005. Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) suppression in persimmon through bait sprays in adjacent coffee plantings. Journal of Applied Entomology, 129: 110-117.
[08] McQuate, G.T. and Roger, I.V. 2007. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Journal of Insect Science, 7 (57): 1-13.
[09] Moreno, D.S., Celedonio, H., Mangan, R.L., Zavala, J.L. and Montoya, P. 2001. Field evaluation of a phototoxic dye, phloxine B, against three species of fruit ßies. J. Econ. Entomol., 94: 1419-1427.
[10] Peck, S.L. and McQuate, G.T. 2000. Field tests of environmentally friendly malathion replacements to suppress wild Mediterranean fruit fly populations. J. Econ. Entomol., 93: 280-289.
[11] Prokopy, R.J., Papaj, D.R., Hendrichs, J. and Wong, T.T.Y. 2011. Behavioral responses of Ceratitis capitata flies to bait spray droplets and natural food. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 6 (3): 247-257.
[12] Ronald, J.P., Neil, W.M., Jaime, C.P.N.E., James, D.B., Linda, C.T., Leslie, O. and Roger, I.V. 2003. Effectiveness of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait Spray Applied to Border Area Plants for Control of Melon Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae). J. Econ. Entomol., 96 (5): 1485-1493.
[13] Sabine, B.N.E. 1992. Pre-harvest control methods. International Training Course Fruit Flies. MARDI, Kuala Lumpur. 4th-15th May 1992. 20 p.
[14] Sarwar, M. 2004. Concept of integrated insect pests management. Pakistan and Gulf Economists, XXIII (46 & 47): 39-41.
[15] Sarwar, M. 2006 a. Occurrence of Insect Pests on Guava (Psidium guajava) Tree. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 38 (3): 197- 200.
[16] Sarwar, M. 2006 b. Management of Guava (Psidium guajava) Orchard against Insect Pests. Economic Review, XXXVIII (8/9): 28-30.
[17] Sarwar, M. 2006 c. Incidence of Insect Pests on Ber (Zizyphus jujube) Tree. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 38 (4): 261- 263.
[18] Sarwar, M. 2012. Frequency of Insect and mite Fauna in Chilies Capsicum annum L., Onion Allium cepa L. and Garlic Allium sativum L. Cultivated Areas, and their Integrated Management. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production, 3 (5): 173-178.
[19] Sarwar, M. 2013. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) - A Constructive Utensil to Manage Plant Fatalities. Research and Reviews: Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 2 (3): 1-4.
[20] Sarwar, M. 2014 a. Knowing About Identify and Mode of Damage by Insect Pests Attacking Winter Vegetables and Their Management. Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, 2 (4): 1-8.
[21] Sarwar, M. 2014 b. Some Insect Pests (Arthropoda: Insecta) of Summer Vegetables, Their Identification, Occurrence, Damage and Adoption of Management Practices. International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Research, 1 (4): 108-117.
[22] Sarwar, M. 2015 a. Biological Control Program to Manage Fruit Fly Pests and Related Tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Backyard, Landscape and Garden. International Journal of Animal Biology, 1 (4): 118-123.
[23] Sarwar, M. 2015 b. How to Manage Fruit Fly (Family Tephritidae) Pests Damage on Different Plant Host Species by take up of Physical Control Measures. International Journal of Animal Biology, 1 (4): 124-129.
[24] Sarwar, M., Ahmad, N., Rashid, A. and Shah, S.M.M. 2015. Valuation of gamma irradiation for proficient production of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae & Eucoilidae) in the management of the peach fruit-fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders). International Journal of Pest Management, 61 (2): 126-134.
[25] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Rasool, B., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2013. Host Preference and Performance of Fruit Flies Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) For Various Fruits and Vegetables. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 1 (8): 188-194.
[26] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2014 a. Monitoring of Population Dynamics and Fruits Infestation of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) Orchard. Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences, 3 (2): 36-40.
[27] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2014 b. Monitoring of Population Density and Fruit Infestation Intensity of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Citrus reticulata Blanco Orchard. Journal of Zoological Sciences, 2 (3): 1-5.
[28] Sarwar, M., Hamed, M., Yousaf, M. and Hussain, M. 2014 c. Surveillance on Population Dynamics and Fruits Infestation of Tephritid Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Orchards of Faisalabad, Pakistan. International Journal of Scientific Research in Environmental Sciences, 2 (4): 113-119.
[29] Shah, S.M.M., Ahmad, N., Sarwar, M. and Tofique, M. 2014. Rearing of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae) for parasitoids production and managing techniques for fruit flies in mango orchards. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 34 (S1): 108-113.
[30] Smith, D. and Nannan, L. 1988. Yeast autolysate bait sprays for control of Queensland fruit fly on passionfruit in Queeensland. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science, 45 (2): 169-177.
[31] Solomon, B., Jackson, K. and Clarke, A.R. 2014. Resting sites, edge effects and dispersion of a polyphagous Bactrocera fruit fly within crops of different architecture. Journal of Applied Entomology, 138 (7): 510-518.
[32] Solomon, B., Jackson, K., Hamacek, E.L. and Clarke, A.R. 2012. Spatial and temporal foraging patterns of Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for protein and implications for management. Australian Journal of Entomology, 51 (4): 279-288.
[33] U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. 1989. Oriental fruit fly action plan. USDA-APHIS, Hyattsville, MD, 56 p.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.