International Journal of Animal Biology
Articles Information
International Journal of Animal Biology, Vol.5, No.1, Mar. 2020, Pub. Date: Jul. 7, 2020
Abnormal Tissues Changes Made by Chlorine in the Gills of Oreochromis niloticus Fish
Pages: 1-4 Views: 1314 Downloads: 360
[01] Haram Hassan Abbas Bakhiet, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Science, College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum North, Sudan.
[02] Raian Omer, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Science, College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum North, Sudan.
[03] Alaa Hashim, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Science, College of Animal Production Science and Technology, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Khartoum North, Sudan.
The study was conducted in the department of fisheries and wildlife science, Sudan University of science and technology aimed to find out the effects of chlorine as disinfection material in gills tissue of Oreochromis niloticus, fish samples were taken from fish hatchery and divided in to three groups, and they were acclimatized for two weeks during this time they were fed by commercial fish food after that they subjected to two dosages’ of chlorine, the first group was subjected to 0.3 ppm, the second group was subjected to 0.5 ppm and the third was the control group without any additives, any dead fish during the experiment was dissected for general observation and their gills taken on 10% buffered neutral formalin and processed using the normal histological technique and examined under light microscope. Histological changes observed in the gills were severe congestion of blood vessels, edema of epithelial cells at the lamellae, Hyperplasia of mucous cells and fusion at lamellae and gills filaments damage were notice in the studied fish gills. In conclusion the histology of the fish gills provides information to evaluate the fish health status and to examine the toxic materials may attack fish in their natural habitats and environment. Also results reinforce the high potential of histopathological changes in increasing concentration of chlorine in water of fish.
Chlorine, Histology, Gills, Hyperplasia, Oreochromis niloticus, Health, Toxicity, Environment
[01] Alabaster, J. and Lioyd, R (1980). Water quality criteria for fresh water fish. Butterworth scientific, London, United Kingdom.
[02] Alberto A., Camargo A. F. M., Verani J. R., Costa O. F. T., Fernandes M. N (2005). Health variables and gill morphology in the tropical fish Astyanax fasciatus from sewage – contaminated river. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 61: 247-255.
[03] Amlacher, E. (1970). Text book of fish diseases. Translated by D. A. Conory and R. L. Hermon. T. F. H. publications, Neptune, Newjersy.
[04] Archer, A.; Fischer, E.; Turnheim, R. and Manor, Y. (1997). Ecologically friendly waste water disinfection technique. Water Research 31, 1398-1404.
[05] Bernet, D., Schmidt, H., Meier, W., Burkhardt, P. & Wahli, T., 1999, Histopathology in fish: proposal for a protocol to assess aquatic pollution. J. Fish Dis., 22: 25-34.
[06] Boyd, C. (1996). Chlorination and water quality in ponds. World Aquaculture 27: 41-45.
[07] Brooks, A. and Bartos, J. (1984). Effects of free and combined chlorine and exposure duration on Rainbow Trout, channel Cat fish and Emerald Shiners. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 113: 786-793.
[08] Camarago M. M. P. and Martinez C. B. R. (2007). Histopathology of gills, kidney and liver of a tropical fish caged in an urban stream. Neotropical Ichthyology, 5: 327-336.
[09] Ferraris, M., E. Chiesara, S. Radice, A. Giovara, S. Fregeiro and Marabini, (2005). Study of potential toxic effects on rainbow trout hepatocytes of surface water treated with chlorine or alternative disinfectants. Chemosphere, 60: 65-73.
[10] Genten F, Terwinghe E, Dangay A. (2009) Atlas of Fish Histology. Science Publishers, Enfield. 8: 223-227.
[11] Husnah, A. and Lin, C (2002). Toxicity of chlorine to different sizes of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in low – salinity shrimp pond water. Aquaculture research 33: 1129-1135.
[12] Lee, W. and Westerhoff, P., (2009). Formation of organic chloramines during water disinfection - chlorination versus chloramination. Water Research, 43: 2233–2239.
[13] Mallat, J., (1985). Fish gill structural changes induced by toxicants and other irritants: a statistical review. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 42: 630-648.
[14] Michael, K. and Stoskopf, D. (1993). Fish medicine. Library of congress cataloging.
[15] Parker, R. (2002). Aquaculture science, 2nd edition. Printed in the united states of America-Chapter 10: Water Requirements for aquaculture 2: 331-375.
[16] Pottes, A. and Jolly, C. (1998). A survey of chlorine use among Alabama Channel cat fish farmers. Journal of Applied Aquaculture., 8: 1-10.
[17] Roberts RJ (2001) Fish Pathology. WB Saunders, London. 472.
[18] Soneyink, V. and Jenkins, D. (1980). Water chemistry. John Wiley and sons, New York.
[19] Tkatcheva, V., Hyvarinen, H., Kukkonen, J., ryzhkov, L. P. and Holopainen, I. J., (2004) Toxic effects of mining effluents on fish gills in a subarctic lake system in NW Russia. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 57: 278-289.
[20] Valdez domingos, F. X., Assis, H. C. S., Silva, Manuela, D., Damian R. C., Almeida, M. I. M., Cestari, M., Randi, M. and Oliveira Ribeiro, C. A., (2009). Anthropic impact evaluation of two Brazilian estuaries through biomarkers in fish. J. Braz. Soc. Ecotox., 4: 21-30.
[21] Walsh AH, Ribelin WE (1975). The pathology of insecticide poisoning. In: Ribelin WE, Migaki G (eds.): Pathology of Fishes. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 515–557.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.