International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering
Articles Information
International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol.1, No.3, Nov. 2015, Pub. Date: Jan. 9, 2016
Overall Notable Health Challenges About the Toxicity of Pesticides Concerning to End Users
Pages: 323-330 Views: 1182 Downloads: 617
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
[02] Muhammad Salman, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Pesticides are one of the five worst threats to human's health, whereas, the other four are lead, air pollution, environmental tobacco smoke and drinking-water contamination. Particularly, insecticides are intended to control insect pests, but these may also be toxic or poisonous to humans including desirable plants and animals. Some insecticides are so highly toxic that in very small quantities these may kill a person and nearly any insecticide can make to peoples punishing if these are exposed to a sufficient amount. For the reason that even fairly safe insecticides can irritate the skin, eyes, nose, or mouth, it is a good idea to understand how pesticides can be toxic and to follow practices to eliminate exposure to them. This manuscript, therefore, describes how pesticides work on living organisms and guides to learn in what way to lessen or abolish human exposure. Toxicity refers to an ability of a substance to produce adverse effect, and insecticides work by altering normal body functions and adverse effects may range from slight symptoms such as headaches to severe symptoms like coma, convulsions, or death. Insecticides can enter the body orally (through mouth and digestive system), dermally (through skin) or by inhalation (through nose and respiratory system). Some poisons cause irreversible (permanent) damage, however, most toxic effects are naturally reversible and do not cause permanent damage if prompt medical treatment is sought. Toxicology is the science of insecticides, which are poisons, there is none which is not a toxic and their right dose absorbed through skin, inhaled or ingested, differentiates a poison and a remedy. Toxicity is species-specific, and a central concept of toxicology is that toxic effects are dose-dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect. Since the basic purpose of conducting toxicity studies is to provide an accurate prediction of potential adverse effects of a chemical in non-target as well as in test species, it needs to ask whether the methodology that is used both for testing and interpreting the test results is yielding answers that protect both the environment and public health. Use insecticides safely, read and follow directions on the manufacturer’s label and do not take delaying chances if any one becomes contaminated, however, it is necessary to wash body infected immediately.
Toxicology, Exposure, Risk, Poison, Children’s Vulnerability
[01] Adams, R.W. 1995. Handbook for Pesticide Applicators and Dispensers. Fifth Edition, Victoria, B.C. BC Environment.
[02] Alavanja, M.C., Hoppin, J.A. and Kamel, F. 2004. Health effects of chronic pesticide exposure: cancer and neurotoxicity. Annu. Rev. Public Health, 25: 155-197.
[03] Council on Scientific Affairs. 1997. Educational and informational strategies to reduce pesticide risks. Prev. Med., 26 (2): 191-200.
[04] David, W.M.D. and Linda, G.M.P.A. 2000. Poisons on Pets: Health Hazards from Flea and Tick Products. Natural Resources Defense Council, 74: 57.
[05] Decourtye, A. and Devillers, J. 2010. Ecotoxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to bees. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 683: 85-95.
[06] Ecobichon, D.J. 1996. Toxic effects of pesticides. In: Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons (Klaassen C.D, Doull J, eds). 5th ed. New York: MacMillan. p. 643-689.
[07] Fishel, F.M. 2005. Evaluation of Pesticides for Carcinogenic Potential. Gainesville: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences. FL- 32611.
[08] Gilden, R.C., Huffling, K. and Sattler, B. 2010. Pesticides and health risks. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Neonatal, Nurs., 39 (1): 103-110.
[09] Gosselin, R.E., Smith, R.P. and Hodge, H.C. 1984. Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products. 5th ed., Williams & Wilkins. Baltimore, MD. IN-CIDE: Pest control insulation. Energy Design Update, 4 (11): 13-14.
[10] Hall, F.R. 1991. Pesticide application technology and integrated pest management (IPM). In: D. Pimentel (Ed.), Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture, Vol. II, Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press. p. 135-170.
[11] Herman-Giddens, M.E., Slora, E.J. and Wasserman, R. 1997. Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: A Study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network. Pediatrics, 99: 505-512.
[12] Levine, M.J. 2007. Pesticides: A Toxic Time Bomb in our Midst. Praeger Publishers. p. 213-214.
[13] Mascarelli, A. 2013. Growing Up with Pesticides. Science, 341 (6147): 740.
[14] McCauley, L.A., Anger, W.K., Keifer, M., Langley, R., Robson, M.G. and Rohlman, D. 2006. Studying health outcomes in farmworker populations exposed to pesticides. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114 (3): 953-960.
[15] Mridula, C., Chetna, S. and Mamta, C. 2013. Effects of Pesticides on Human Beings and Farm Animals: A Case Study. Res. J. Chem. Env. Sci., 1 (3): 14-19.
[16] Nesheim, O.N., Frederick, M.F. and Mark, M. 2014. Toxicity of Pesticides. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Extension publication, PI-13.
[17] Sarwar, M. 2015 a. The Killer Chemicals as Controller of Agriculture Insect Pests: The Conventional Insecticides. International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science, 1 (3): 141-147.
[18] Sarwar, M. 2015 b. Commonly Available Commercial Insecticide Formulations and Their Applications in the Field. International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, 1 (2): 116-123.
[19] Sarwar, M. 2015 c. The Dangers of Pesticides Associated with Public Health and Preventing of the Risks. International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 1 (2): 130-136.
[20] Sarwar, M. 2015 d. The Killer Chemicals for Control of Agriculture Insect Pests: The Botanical Insecticides. International Journal of Chemical and Bimolecular Science, 1 (3): 123-128.
[21] Sarwar, M. 2015 e. Usage of Biorational Pesticides with Novel Modes of Action, Mechanism and Application in Crop Protection. International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, 1 (2): 156-162.
[22] Sarwar, M. 2015 f. Microbial Insecticides- An Ecofriendly Effective Line of Attack for Insect Pests Management. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology, 1 (2): 4-9.
[23] Sarwar, M. 2015 g. Biopesticides: An Effective and Environmental Friendly Insect-Pests Inhibitor Line of Action. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology, 1 (2): 10-15.
[24] Sarwar, M. 2015 h. Information on Activities Regarding Biochemical Pesticides: An Ecological Friendly Plant Protection against Insects. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Research Technology, 1 (2): 27-31.
[25] Stahl, A. 2002. The Health Effects of Pesticides Used for Mosquito Control. Sarah, J.M. and Adrienne, E. (Ed.). 225-A Main Street Farmingdale, New York.12 p.
[26] Zahm, S.H. and Ward, M.H. 1998. Pesticides and Childhood Cancer. Environ Health Perspect., 106 (3): 893-908.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - 2017 American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.