International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering
Articles Information
International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol.1, No.3, Nov. 2015, Pub. Date: Jan. 16, 2016
Insecticides Resistance in Insect Pests or Vectors and Development of Novel Strategies to Combat Its Evolution
Pages: 344-351 Views: 708 Downloads: 1304
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
[02] Muhammad Salman, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Abstract
The purpose of this presentation is to explore about insecticides resistance, in what way it occurs and how to manage this so that pesticides can continue to be used as crop management tools in the future. Resistance is an important concept to understand when attempting to manage a vector or pest that is the situation in which the insects are no longer killed by the standard dose of insecticide (they are no longer susceptible to the insecticide) or manage to avoid coming into contact with the insecticide. Insecticide resistance is an increasing problem faced by those persons who need insecticides to efficiently control medical, veterinary and agricultural insects. The development of resistance in the fields is influenced by various factors, and these are biological, genetic and operational issues. Biological factors are generation time, number of offspring per generation and migration. Genetic factors are frequency and dominance of the resistance gene, fitness of resistance genotype and number of different resistance alleles. These factors cannot be influenced by man; however, operational factors such as treatment, timing and dosage of insecticide application, persistence and insecticide chemistry, all are equitable. With cases of resistance on the rise and insecticide resources declining, it has become apparent that chemical pest control, as practiced today, may no longer be sustainable without the availability of specific strategies and tactics for the prevention or management of resistance. The emergence of insecticide resistance in insect populations is an evolutionary phenomenon and without taking actions to delay or minimize it now, pesticide management tactics currently used may someday no longer work. Generally recognized approaches to resistance management are grouped under three principal categories, first, low selection pressure supplemented by a strong component of non-chemical measures (management by moderation), second, elimination of the selective advantage of resistant individuals by increasing insecticide uptake through the use of attractants or by suppressing of detoxication enzymes through the use of synergists (management by saturation), and third, application of multi-directional selection by means of mixtures or rotations of unrelated insecticides or by use of chemicals with multi-site action (management by multiple attack). In such cases, the strategy chosen to resistance management must be based on thorough knowledge of the resistance implications of the candidate insecticides and the biology of resistant insect pests or vectors.
Keywords
Agriculture, Insecticide, Pesticide Resistance, Public Health, Managing Resistance
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