International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering
Articles Information
International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol.1, No.3, Nov. 2015, Pub. Date: Jan. 9, 2016
Direct Possessions of Insect Arthropods on Humans Owing to Allergen, Bloodsucking, Biting, Envenomation and Stinging Side By Side Case Diagnosis and Treating
Pages: 331-337 Views: 647 Downloads: 625
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Department of Entomology, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to present the readers with a basic yet sound understanding of the dangerous types of insect invertebrates that may be encountered during daily life operations worldwide. The class Insecta belongs to the superclass Hexapoda (six-legged arthropods) of the phylum Arthropoda (joint-legged animals). This huge biodiversity is a natural treasure to humans as many species are important natural enemies of pests, pollinators and provide useful compounds (honey, silk and lac). However, some insects have negative impacts on human’s health because they are vectors of diseases that affect millions of peoples globally. In addition, insects can cause allergic or adverse reactions in humans. The adverse actions have been noted in the subsequent insect orders, Thysanura (silverfish), Dictyoptera (cockroaches), Phasmatodea (stick insects), Orthoptera (locusts, crickets), Siphunculata (lice), Hemiptera (true bugs, cicadas), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (flies, mosquitoes), Siphonaptera (fleas), Lepidoptera (butterflies, moths) and Hymenoptera (bees, wasps, ants). There are several types of potentially negative interactions associated with invertebrates including physical pain, disease, envenomation, myiasis, allergic reactions, psychological disorders and occasionally death. The cause of allergic reactions may be due to the bites of lice, fleas and bedbugs, or by way of the stings of bees or wasps. Symptoms of allergic reactions along with other possessions include itching, hives, swelling, vomiting, diarrhoea and shock. The diagnosis and treatment of allergic reactions are dependent on species of insects and diseases involved. But sometimes an insect bite or sting causes generalized reaction symptoms of which are often mild, or in other cases symptoms are more severe, such as difficulty in breathing or a sudden drop in blood pressure, and this potentially life-threatening reaction is known as anaphylaxis. Other signs of anaphylaxis include noisy breathing, swelling of tongue or throat, persistent cough or wheeze, difficulty in talking or hoarse voice, dizziness or collapse, pale and floppy, which is a case of medical emergency. First aid for bites and stings should include bandaging the wound and keeping the person immobile until medical help arrives. Emergency service might be called and apply cardiopulmonary resuscitation if a person collapses or stops breathing. Use insect repellents, particularly repellents can be applied to clothing, shoes, tents, mosquito nets and other stuffs to enhance protection. Currently, primary prevention by avoidance of stings and bites, and adequate instruction of sensitized individuals in the use of emergency drugs are mandatory.
Keywords
Allergen, Antigen, Hematophagous, Venom, Sting, Bite
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