International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering
Articles Information
International Journal of Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, Vol.1, No.3, Nov. 2015, Pub. Date: Nov. 13, 2015
Insect Borne Diseases Transmitted by Some Important Vectors of Class Insecta Hurtling Public Health
Pages: 311-317 Views: 950 Downloads: 1413
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Department of Entomology, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
Abstract
The goal of the present article is to provide technical guidance for the insect borne diseases and make some improvements in management practices necessary to control the vector problems in order to meet the needs of expanding and emerging disease situations. Historically, harmful arthropods represent one of the greatest environmental hazards to human and insect borne diseases have caused more casualties than battle injuries. Insect borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever, typhus and plague alone are responsible for the loss of working capacity, food damage and restrict development of states. Insect vector is an organism that carries a pathogen from a different organism to another. Insects may transmit these pathogens by biological (after arthropod acquires pathogen from an infected host following an appropriate development of the pathogen, the vector becomes infective and can transmit the pathogen to another animal the next time it feeds to serve as an intermediate host) or mechanical mean (vector serves only as carrier of the pathogens that adhere to mouthparts, body or legs, picks up the pathogen while feeding on an infected host and carries to another host). Although some agile vectors such as adults of black flies, biting midges and tsetse flies, have dispersed into new habitats by flight or wind, human-aided transport is responsible for the arrival and spread of most invasive vectors such fleas, lice, kissing bugs and mosquitoes. From the previous century to the present, successive waves of invasion of the vector mosquitoes Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, Culex pipiens complex and most recently, Aedes albopictus have invaded new localities. Weather influences survival and reproduction rates of vectors, in turn influencing habitat suitability, distribution and abundance, intensity and temporal pattern of vector’s activity (particularly biting rates) throughout the year, and rates of development, survival and reproduction of pathogens within vectors. However, climate is only one of many factors influencing vector distribution, such as habitat destruction, land use, pesticide application and host density. Vector-borne diseases can be restricted by avoiding insect bites by wearing long sleeved clothing and long pants, use of insect repellents, adopting regular pest control measures, avoiding traveling to places with high prevalence of disease, when have to travel it is advisable to get vaccinated when possible, sleeping in screened areas or air-conditioned rooms and use of bed nets. Research on infectious diseases must often be conducted in the midst of epidemics and in concert with management efforts.
Keywords
Insect Borne Diseases, Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, Insect Vector
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