International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science
Articles Information
International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science, Vol.1, No.3, Oct. 2015, Pub. Date: Aug. 13, 2015
The Killer Chemicals for Control of Agriculture Insect Pests: The Botanical Insecticides
Pages: 123-128 Views: 4997 Downloads: 11504
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
This paper is likely to be fruitful by adding a share in the knowledge about use of botanicals and their processing into suitable manner as candidates for inclusion in the insect pests management with special focus on most destructive products. The use of synthetic insecticides for controlling of insect pests globally may have problems such as their persistent toxicity in food, the subsequent development of resistance in insect populations, effects on non-target organisms and other adverse environmental impacts. Of these, for sound management of pests there is an increasing interest in biotic control using plant products, which can prove eco-friendly with highly reduced negative effects on environment. Botanicals pesticides are plant derived materials such as from rotenone, pyrethrum, sabadilla, ryania, etc., used universally from commercial agriculture to institutions, homes and landscapes. Sometimes, nicotine products, although natural, yet are not considered bio-rational due to their high mammalian toxicity. The most potent bioactive compounds responsible for insecticide properties in botanicals are alkaloids, non-proteic amino acids, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosids, glucosinolates, quinones, tanins, terpenoids, salanine, meliantrol, azadiractin, piretrolone, cinerolone and jasmolone acting as contact poisons, ingestion or stomach poisons, feeding deterrences, repellents and confusants, leading to finally death of the insect victims. Some newer botanical insecticides have low mammalian toxicity and these include products made from extract of neem tree seeds, which is labeled for many vegetable crops. Azadirachtin is the active ingredient that works by inhibiting development of immature stages of many insects and by deterring feeding by adults. Garlic and hot pepper-based materials are other low-toxicity botanicals used by some growers, although their efficacy is somewhat certain. Botanical insecticides show significant fatal effects, antifeedant with significantly lower feeding rates and repellent effects against insects when their populations are low to moderate in size. Botanicals pesticides are biodegradable, barely leave residues in the soil and are less likely to harm humans or animals. In addition, these are cheaper and more accessible in less developed countries. Most botanicals are broad spectrum, so along with pest control they may kill beneficial insects too. However, these tend to be moderately toxic to peoples and wildlife, and many are irritating to mucous membranes. Use of powdered and extract forms of test plants is recommended for small scale farmers of developing countries due to the simplicity of application, easy removal and non-toxic effects even if consumed by humans as having medicinal properties.
Botanical Pesticide, Plant Derived Material, Insecticide, Knockdown, Mortality
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