International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics
Articles Information
International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.1, No.1, Aug. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 9, 2015
Protection of Bio-Deteriorated Reinforced Concrete Using Concrete Sealers
Pages: 11-19 Views: 2169 Downloads: 1955
[01] Rajesh K. Verma, Environmental Science & Technology Group, CSIR-Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, India.
[02] Ajay Chourasia, Structural Engineering Group, CSIR-Central Building Research Institute, Roorkee, India.
Concrete, a most durable building material is mainly composed of water, aggregate and cement. It provides superior fire resistance compared with wooden construction and gains strength over time. Structures made of concrete can have a long service life. Reinforced concrete (RC) is a composite material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength and/or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars (rebar) and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. Concrete can be damaged by many processes, such as the expansion of corrosion products of the steel reinforcement bars, freezing of trapped water, fire or radiant heat, aggregate expansion, sea water effects, bacterial corrosion, leaching, erosion by fast-flowing water, physical damage and chemical damage. Many building structures undergo bio-deterioration when exposed to contact with soil, water and sewage as well as food, agricultural products and waste materials. Concrete sealers are applied to concrete to protect it from surface damage, corrosion, and staining. They either block the pores in the concrete to reduce absorption of water and salts or form an impermeable layer which prevents such materials from passing. Sealers are one of the most problematic and misunderstood aspects of concrete countertops. There is no review literature available about protection of reinforced concrete using concrete sealers. The present review includes reinforced concrete, hydration chemistry of portland cement, bio-deterioration of concrete and various types of concrete sealers for protection of reinforced concrete structures.
Reinforced Concrete, Cement Hydration, Bio-Deterioration, Concrete Sealers
[01] Samudre MP, Mangulkar MN, Saptarshi SD, A review of emerging way to enhance the durability and strength of concrete structures: Microbial concrete, Intern J Innov Res Sci Eng Tech. 3 (2014) 9311-9316.
[02] Lomborg Bjorn, The Skeptical Environmentalist: Measuring the Real State of the World. (2001) 138, ISBN 978-0-521-80447-9.
[03] “Minerals commodity summary-cement”. US United State Geological Survey, 1 June 2007.
[04] Zongjin Li, Advanced concrete technology (2011) ISBN: 978-0-470-43743-8.
[05] Zacharopoulou A, Zacharopoulou E, Batis G, Protection systems for reinforced concrete with corrosion inhibitors, Open J Met (2014) 86-92.
[06] Ivanchev I, Research on cracks in reinforced concrete elements by taking into account the experimentally determined concrete and reinforcing steel mechanical properties, Ind J App Res 5 (2015) 239-241.
[07] Schneider M, Romer M, Tschudin M, Bolio H, Sustainable cement production—present and future, Cem Conc Res 41 (2011) 462-650.
[08] Gaidis JM, Gartner EM, Hydration mechanisms, II, in: Skalny J, Mindess S (Eds.), Mats Sci Conc 2 (1989) 9–39.
[09] Gartner EM, Young JF, Damidot DA, Jawed I, Hydration of portland cement, in: Bensted J, Barnes P (Eds.), Structure and Performance of Cements, 2nd Edition, Spon Press, New York, (2002) 57–113.
[10] Cement hydration- Understanding Cement, WHD Microanalysis Consultants Ltd., December 2012 ISBN-13: 978-0-9571045-2-5.
[11] Specification for Cements and Materials for Well Cementing, 23rd edition. Washington, DC: API (2002).
[12] Sand W, Microbial corrosion and its inhibition. in: Rehm HJ (Ed), Biotechnology, Vol 10, 2nd ed, Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim (2001) 267-316.
[13] Cwalina B, Biodeterioration of Concrete, Arch Civil Engg Environ 4 (2008) 133-140.
[14] Anichi SE, Abu GO, Biodeterioration of pipeline concrete coating material by iron oxidizing and sulphate reducing bacteria, J Pet Environ Biotechnol 3 (2012) 1-5.
[15] Videla HA, Herrera LK, Biocorrosion, in Vazquez Dahalt R, Quintero Ramivez R (eds) Petroleum Biotechnology Development and Perspectives. Elsevier Amsterdam, the Natherland, (2004) 193–218
[16] PCA; Types and causes of concrete deterioration, Portlant Cement Association, IS536, (2002) 1-16.
[17] Cwalina B, Korozja kamienia i betonu wzbudzona przez drobnoustroje (The stone and concrete corrosion influenced by microorganisms). Ochrona przed Korozją, 1 (2004) 17-23.
[18] Cwalina B, Dzierżewicz Z; Korozja biologiczna konstrukcji żelbetowych (Biological corrosion of reinforced concrete constructions). XXI Polish Conference, Warsztat Pracy Projektanta Konstrukcji”, Szczyrk, T.1, Wyd. PZITB, O/Gliwice, (2006) 79-108.
[19] Shi C, Mo YL, High-performance construction materials, (2008) ISBN 978-981-279-735-3
[20] Jeffrey Giarad J, Sealer options for concrete countertops (2005).
[21] Sergi G, Lattery SE, Page Influence of surface treatments on corrosion rates of steel in carbonated concrete C.L. Page, Treadaway, Bomforth (Eds.), Corrosion and Reinforcement in Concrete, Elsevier Applied Science, London (1990) 409–419.
[22] McGettigen E, Application Mechanism of Silane Weatherproofers. Concrete international, 12 (1990) 66-68.
[23] Higgins RC, Waterproofing for concrete, Reference and Guide, Sinak Corp., San Diego, CA (1985).
[24] Basheer P, Basheer L, Cleland DJ, Long AE, Surface treatments for concrete: assessment methods and reported performance. Constr Build Mats 11 (1997), 413-429.
[25] Dulaijan SU, Maslehuddin M, Al-Zahrani MM, Al-Juraifani EA, Alidi SA, Al-Meththel M. Performance evaluation of cement-based surface coatings. In: Proceedings of 2000 International Conference, Repair, Rehabilitation andMaintenance of Concrete Structures and Innovations in Design and Construction, Seoul, Korea, September 19–22, 2000. p. 321–38.
[26] Medeiros, MHF, Helene P, Surface treatment of reinforced concrete in marine environment: Influence on chloride diffusion coefficient and capillary water absorption, Constr Build Mats 23 (2009) 1476-1484.
[27] Ghoddousi P, Raiss Ghasemi AM, Parhizkar T, The effect of concrete quality on performance of surface treatment materials. in: Rudolph N. Kraus, Tarun R. Naik, Peter Claisse, Sadeghi -Pouya, editors. Proc. Int. Conf: Sustainable construction materials and technologies, Coventry, Special apers proceedings, Pub. UW Milwaukee CBU; 11–13 June 2007, 78–84.
[28] Medeiros MHF, Helene P, Efficacy of surface hydrophobic agents in reducing water and chloride ion penetration in concrete, Mat Stru 41 (2008) 59-71.
[29] Moon HY, Shin DJ, Choi DS, Evaluation of the durability of mortar and concrete applied with inorganic coating material and surface treatment system, Constr Build Mats 21 (2007) 362-369.
[30] Basheer L, Cleland DJ. Freeze-thaw resistance of concerts treated with pore liners, Constr Build Mats 20 (2006) 990–998.
[31] Dang Y, Xie, Kessel A, McVey E, Pace A, Shi X, Accelerated laboratory evaluation of surface treatments for protecting concrete bridge from salt scaling, Constr Build Mats 55 (2014) 128-135.
[32] Safiuddin Md, Soudki KA, Sealer and coating systems for protection of concrete bridge structures. Intern J Phyc Sci 6 (2011) 8188-8199.
[33] Ibrahim M, Al-Gahtani AS, Maslehuddin M, Dakhil FH, Use of surface treatment materials to improve concrete durability, J Mat Civ Engg ASCE 11 (1999) 36-40.
[34] Almusallam AA, Khan FM, Dulaijan SU, Al-Amoudi OSB, Effectivness of surface coating in improving concrete durability, Cem Conc Compos 25 (2003) 473-481.
[35] Soudki KA, Safiuddin Md, Jeffs P, Macdonald G, Kroker M, Chloride penetration resistance of concrete sealer and coating system, J Civil Engg Mangm 21 (2015) 492-502.
[36] Mamaghani I, Moretti C, Dockter B, FalkenL, Tonnenson J, J Transport Res Board doi:10.3141/2108-10 (2009).
[37] Cady, P. NCHRP Report 209: Sealers for Portland Cement Highway Facilities. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council (1994).
[38] Basheer L, Cleland DJ, Long AE, Protection provided by surface treatments against chloride induced corrosion. Mat Struc 31(1998), 459-464.
[39] Thompson JL, Silsbee MR, Gill PM, Scheetz, Characterization of sealers on concrete. Cem Conc Res 27 (1997) 1561-1567.
[40] David T, Analysis and assessment of microbial-mediated concrete deterioration. A project by Texas department of transporting (2008).
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.