International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics
Articles Information
International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.1, No.2, Oct. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 29, 2015
Extraction of Cellulose Nano Crystalline from Cotton by Ultrasonic and Its Morphological and Structural Characterization
Pages: 99-109 Views: 4671 Downloads: 4578
Authors
[01] Ismail K. Ibrahim (Al-Khateeb), Chemistry Dept., College of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
[02] Sabri M. Hussin, Chemistry Dept., College of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
[03] Yusra M. Al-Obaidi, Chemistry Dept., College of Science, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Iraq.
Abstract
Cellulose nano-crystals (CNCs) were obtained from native cotton fibers by sulphuric acid hydrolysis with range of 30% to 60%, followed by sonication using ultrasonic technology. Nano cellulose has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectra. TEM and SEM showed nano fibres - like morphology for low acid concentration, while increasing the acid rate to 40% - 60% showed rod-like shape particles and spherical nano particles. Nano cellulose was quite different from that of unsonicated samples. X-ray diffraction data showed that the fibres had been transformed from cellulose (native) to nano cellulose crystal structure, which manifests significant conversion of cellulose. Nano cellulose exhibited identical FTIR spectra quite different from that of unsonicated samples.
Keywords
Cellulose Nano-Crystals, Acid-hydrolysis, Sonication
References
[01] Chih-Ping Chang, I-Chen Wang, Kuo-Jung Hung. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline cellulose by acid hydrolysis of cotton. Taiwan J. Sci. 25: 251-64, 2010.
[02] E. Eduardo. Cellulose nanocrystals properties and applications in renewable nanocomposites. Ph.D. Thesis, the Graduate School of Clemson University, Clemson, USA, 2011.
[03] Arup Mandal, Debabrata Chakrabarty. Isolation of nanocellulose from waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and its characterization. Carbohyd. Poly. 86 : 1291– 1299, 2011.
[04] Mubatmnad Shahid Nazir, Bambang Ali Wahjoedi, Abdul Wahid Yussof and Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah .Eco-friendly extraction and characterization of cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches. Bio Resou. 8: 2161-2172, 2013 .
[05] Wei Kong, Tom Plant, John Simonsen, Glenn Evans. Cellulose nanocrystal electro-optic devices. J. App. Physics 2006. 97, 053101.
[06] Mengsheng Wang. Surface modification and characterization of nano crystalline cellulose. M. Sc. Sci. Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, 2011.
[07] Robert J. Moon, Ashlie Martini, John Nairn, John Simonsenf. Cellulose nanomaterials review: structure, properties and nanocomposites. Chem. Soc. Rev. 40: 3941–3994, 2011.
[08] Ingvild Kvien, Characterization of biopolymer based nanocomposites. Ph.D. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, January 2007.
[09] Samit Kumar, Yuvraj Singh Negi, Jugmendra Sain Upadhyaya. Studies on characterization of corn cob based nanoparticles. Adv. Mat. Lett. 1: 246-253, 2010.
[10] Suh Cem Pang, Suk Fun Chin, Victor Yih. Conversion of cellulosic waste materials into nanostructured ceramics and nanocomposites", Adv. Mat. Lett., 2: 118-124, 2011.
[11] Hussein Oubani, Ali Abbas, Andrew Harris. Investigation on the mechanical pretreatment of cellulose by high intensity ultrasound and ball milling. Cellulose 19:855–866 2012.
[12] Hanieh Kargarzadeh , Ishak Ahmad , Ibrahim Abdullah , Alain Dufresne. Effects of hydrolysis conditions on the morphology, crystallinity, and thermal stability of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from kenaf bast fibers. Cellulose 19:855–866,2012.
[13] Shree P. Mishra, Anne-S. Manent, Bnmo Chabot, and Claude Daneault. Production of nanocellulose from native cellulose-various options utilizing ultrasound. Bio Resou. 7: 422-436, 2012.
[14] Mingzhu Ran, Xiaoyyan Zhou, and Minzhi Chen. Cellulose nano whiskers isolation and properties from acid hydrolysis combined with high pressure homogenization. Bio Resou. 8: 933-943, 2013.
[15] Sunkyu Park, John O Baker, Michael E Himmel. Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulose performance. Biotech. Biofuel., 3:10,2010.
[16] Mingzlm Pan, Xiaoyan Zhou, and Minzhi Chen. Cellulose nanowhiskers isolation and properties from acid hydrolysis combined with high pressure homogenization. BioReso. 8: 933-943,2013.
[17] Zhong-Yan Qin, Guo-Lin Tong, Y. C. Frank Chin, and Jian-Cheng Zhou. Preparation of ultrasonic-assisted high carboxylate content cellulose nanocrystals by tempo oxidation. .BioReso. 6: 1136-1146, 2011.
[18] S. Y. Cho, Y. Choi, D. Park, S. Heo, D. H. Kim, H. -J. Jin . Cellulose nanocrystals with high thermal stability and their nanocomposites with poly(lactic acid). 18th International Conference on Composite Materials, 2009.
[19] C.E. Ponce-Reyes, J.J. Chanona-P´erez, V. Garibay-Febles. Preparation of cellulose nanoparticles from agave waste and its morphological and structural characterization. 13: 897-906, 2014
[20] Mizi Fan1, Dasong Dai1, Biao Huang. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Natural Fibres", DOI: 10.5772/35482, Intech Open Science, May 23, 2012.
[21] Lukmanul Hakim Zaini, Mehdi Jonoobi, Paridah Md. Tahir. Isolation and characterization of cellulose whiskers from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Bast Fibers. J. Biomat. Nanobiotechn. 4: 37-44,2013.
[22] Yuvraj Singh Negi, Veena Choudhary, Nishi Kant Bhardwaj. Characterization of cellulose nanocrystals produced by acid-hydrolysis from sugarcane bagasse as agro-waste. J. Mat. Phys. Chem. 2, 1-8, 2014.
[23] Yihong Wang , Xiaoyi Wei, Jihua Li. Homogeneous isolation of nanocellulose from cotton cellulose by high pressure homogenization. J. Mat. Sci. Chem. Eng. 1, 49-52, 2013.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.