International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics
Articles Information
International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.1, No.2, Oct. 2015, Pub. Date: Aug. 26, 2015
Usage of Biorational Pesticides with Novel Modes of Action, Mechanism and Application in Crop Protection
Pages: 156-162 Views: 3045 Downloads: 3220
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture & Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
This paper analyses and focuses on new classes of biorational insecticides to examine the specificity to harmful pests, selectivity to beneficial insects and their suitability to fit well into integrated pest management (IPM) programs. There is a great effort to reduce the risk of human exposure to pesticides and special demand for safer and more selective insecticides for natural enemies and non-target organisms. Of these efforts and demands, biorational pesticides are insecticides derived from natural materials such as animals, plants, bacteria and certain minerals, and are subjected to registration regulations. The recognized categories of biorational pesticides may be synthetic or natural compounds of microbial, plant protectant and biochemical (pheromones, hormones, natural growth regulators and enzymes) origins. Most biorational pesticides are nerve poisons acting at specific target sites in the insect's nervous system. Some insecticides act similarly to the old nerve poisons that result knock-down, rapid intoxication, lack of coordination, paralysis and death, and have higher affinity to insect receptors than to mammalian. The other insecticides affect specific systems, such as the molting processes, metamorphosis and the insect endocrinology system. Biorational pesticides are third-generation pesticides that are environmentally sound and closely resemble or are identical to chemicals produced in nature. The examples of biorational pesticides are the microbial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Kurstaki), neonicotinoids, avermectins, phenlpyrazoles, spinosyns, pyrroles, oxadiazines and various groups of insect growth regulators including methoprene that is a synthetic chemical. Most of the biorational insecticides show effectiveness against different strains of resistant species, with no evidence of cross-resistance; hence these can play an important role in integrated resistance management (IRM) strategies. Most of the newer biorational insecticides are preferable to the conventional insecticides because of their specificity to target pests, effectiveness at low rates, selectivity to beneficial insects and their non-persistent characteristics in the environment. However, insect control using integrated pest management means by use of several techniques to reduce the favorable environmental factors that promote to the pests and their ability to thrive are ideal options.
Biorational Insecticide, Reduced Risk Insecticide, Low Risk Insecticide, Newer Insecticide
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