International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics
Articles Information
International Journal of Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol.1, No.3, Dec. 2015, Pub. Date: Sep. 26, 2015
X-ray Diffraction Analysis of Polymeric Solid Using Bragg-Brentano Geometry
Pages: 265-270 Views: 2981 Downloads: 1940
[01] Biswajit Mallick, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India.
The crystallographic structural parameters were analyzed using X’Pert-MPD XRD a laboratory X-ray source having Bragg-Brentano parafocusing optics. The line profile characteristics was obtained using ProFit -software based on Pseudo-Voigt profile function and is applicable for the study of interplaner spacing d, crystallite size Dhkl, percent crystallinity %C, macromolecular orientation and other structural imperfections of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). The polymeric solids possess very low intense diffraction peak as compared to metal because of its small amount of crystallinity and low Z constituents. Hence, it is quite difficult to record the whole diffraction pattern using a laboratory X-ray diffractometer. So far knowledge is concerned, there is no report on the observation of second order diffraction peaks from polymers using laboratory X-ray source. In the present report we have observed well resolved first order diffraction peaks with a signature of second order pattern from a polymeric solid applying a high-resolution diffraction geometry. The X-ray diffraction data obtained for solid PET matched well with the data reported by different researchers using high intense source like synchrotron.
X-ray Diffraction, Bragg-Brentano, Profile Fitting, Polyethylene Terephthalate
[01] M. Kakudo, and N. Kasai, X-ray Diffraction by Polymers, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972.
[02] A. A. Vaiday, Production of Synthetic Fibres, Printice-Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 1998.
[03] V. N. Kuleznev and V. A. Shershnev, The Chemistry and Physics of Polymers (Translated by G Leib) MIR Publishers, Moscow, 1990.
[04] G. L. Clark, The encyclopedia of X-ray and gamma ray, edited by G. L. Clark, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1963.
[05] H. P. Klung and L. E. Alexander, X-Ray Diffraction Procedures for Polycrystalline and Amorphous Materials, John Wiley, New York, 1974.
[06] D. Campbell and J. R. White, Polymer Characterisation Physical Techniques, Champman & Hall, London, 1989.
[07] R. A. Fava, Polymers Part B: Crystal structure and Morphology, Academic Press New York, 1980.
[08] A. Guinier, X-Ray Diffraction in Crystals, Imperfect crystals, and Amorphous bodies, W.H. Free man & Company, London, 1963.
[09] A. Guinier and G. Fournet, Small-Angle Scattering of X-rays, (Translated by Walker C.B) John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1955.
[10] G. L. Clark, Applied X-rays, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1952.
[11] L. S. D. Glasser, Crystallography and its Applications, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Ltd., New York, 1977.
[12] B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-ray Diffraction, Addision-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., London, 1978.
[13] Philips Analytical X-ray, The Netherlands, Pro Fit software, 1999.
[14] J. I. Langford, D. Louer, E. J. Sonneveld and J. W. Visser, Powder Diffraction, vol. 1, 1986.
[15] H. Lipson and H. Steeple, Interpretation of X-ray Powder Diffraction Pattern, Macmillan, London, 1970.
[16] L. V. Azaroff, R. Kaplow, N. Kato, R. J. Weiss, A. J. C. Wilson and R. A. Young, X-Ray Diffraction, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1974.
[17] R. Gehrke, HASYLAB Summer student lecture: Small Angle X-ray Scattering, 2003.
[18] R. Jenkins and J. L. de Varies, Worked Examples in X-ray Analysis, The Macmillan Press Ltd., London, 1978.
[19] B. Mallick, T. Patel, R. C. Behera, S. N. Sarangi, S. N. Sahu, and R. K. Choudhury, Microstrain analysis of proton irradiated PET microfiber, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B, 248 (2006) 305.
[20] T. Ida and K. Kimura, Flat-specimen effect as a convoluation in powder diffractometry with Bragg-Brentano geometry, J. Appl. Cryst. 32 (1999) 634.
[21] L. H. Sperling, Introduction to Physical Polymer Science, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.