International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research
Articles Information
International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research, Vol.1, No.4, Oct. 2015, Pub. Date: Jul. 20, 2015
Cryptosporidiosis Among Human Immunodefficiency Virus-Tuberculosis (HIV-TB) Co-infected Adult Patients Attending a Specialist Hospital in Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria
Pages: 238-241 Views: 1168 Downloads: 463
Authors
[01] Muodebe Nwokeji, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria.
[02] Benjamin Nkem, Medical Research Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria.
[03] Raphael Egejuru, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Owerri, Nigeria.
[04] Samuel Uzoechi, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
[05] Ijeoma Ogoamaka, Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria.
[06] Austin Nnadozie, Department of Biological Science, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria.
Abstract
The pattern of cryptosporidiosis in Human Immunodefficiency Virus (HIV)-related mixed opportunistic infections has not been widely reported among adults in Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. The study was conducted between the month of October 2014 through March 2015. Stool samples of consenting subjects assessing health care in the major referral centre in the area were collected, prepared and examined applying standard parasitological techniques. The result shows that out of 424 Human Immunodefficiency Virus-Tuberculosis (HIV-TB) co-infected patients examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocyst, 194 (45.8%) yielded positive result for Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) while 230 (54.2%) were only positive for HIV-TB co-infection but negative for Cryptosporidium oocyst. Male patients were infected most (47.2%) than the female (43.2%). Conversely, most female (56.8%) yielded positive result only for HIV-TB co-infection than the male (52.8%). According to age groups, Cryptosporidium oocyst was recovered most (79.4%) in subjects aged 60 years and above. Infection rates of 27.8%, 37.6% and 36.8% were also noted for age groups of 18-30 years, 31-45 years and 46-60 years respectively (p<0.05).More so, Cryptosporidium mixed infection occurred most among drivers (70.9%), followed by artisans (60.4%), while the least infection was noted among students (22.6%). Significant difference exist in rates of infection among the various occupational groups (p<0.05). This result revealed that immunosuppressive diseases like HIV, in most cases precedes such diseases as tuberculosis and cryptosporidiosis, and therefore underscores Cryptosporidium parvum as a notable opportunistic parasite among HIV-TB co-infected individuals. Thus, adequate holistic steps should be adopted by health care providers and relevant stakeholders to ensure proper management of HIV related mixed infections, especially cryptosporidiosis since the present result has shown that Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the expectant opportunistic parasite in HIV infected individuals.
Keywords
Pattern, Cryptosporidiosis, HIV-TB-Cryptosporidium Mixed Infection, Adults, Referral Centre
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