International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research
Articles Information
International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research, Vol.1, No.1, Apr. 2015, Pub. Date: Mar. 26, 2015
Metabolic Factors and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease Among Adults in Mysan, Iraq
Pages: 6-11 Views: 1350 Downloads: 481
[01] Amara R., Arab Board Residency Training Program, Baghdad, Iraq.
[02] Hussein H., School and Educational Institutions Health Unit, Health Affairs Department, Primary Health Care Services Sector, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai , UAE.
[03] Al Faisal W., School and Educational Institutions Health Unit, Health Affairs Department, Primary Health Care Services Sector, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai , UAE.
[04] Alhadi A., Arab Board Residency Training Program, Baghdad, Iraq.
Background: It is estimated that around 20-25 percent of the world's adult population have the metabolic syndrome and they are as twice as likely to die from and three times as likely to have a heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. Objectives: To estimate metabolic factors among adult patients of Ischemic Heart Disease in Mysan, Iraq. Methodology: A group matched case–control was chosen in Maysan province, Iraq. Cases were selected from patients with MI admitted to the medical unit at Al-Sadr teaching hospital. Their ages are ranged from 30 to 78 years old, while controls were patients complaining of acute illnesses attending the same hospital seeking medical care and should be free from MI. Convenient sample was used of 200 cases and 200 controls. Results: Raised blood pressure was reported in 114 cases (57%) and 62 controls (31%) and it’s significantly higher among cases than controls. Elevated fasting blood glucose was reported in 132 cases (66%) and 82 controls (41%), and it’s significantly higher among cases than controls. High serum level of triglycerides was detected in 97 cases (48.5%) and 68 controls (34%) MI cases were about 1.8 folds more likely to have high triglycerides levels than controls. Low concentration of HDL cholesterol was found in 81(40.5%) cases and 38 controls (19%), it had been significantly found that low HDL level were more frequent among MI cases than controls. Twelve MI cases (6%) and 7 controls (3.5%) had Proteinuria although this finding was clinically significant, it was statistically not significant. Conclusions: Metabolic Disorders were reported to be higher in patients with MI. FBG was the most predictor for MI followed by HDL. The most associated cofounder was BMI. There is a need to establish a health facility based screening system for early detection of MS.
Ischemic Heart Disease, Metabolic Factors, Iraq, Adults
[01] Okrainec K, Banerjee DK, Eisenberg MJ. Coronary artery disease in the developing world. Am J Heart2004; 148:7–15.
[02] Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A,Lanas F et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study), case–control study. Lancet2004; 364: 937–952.
[03] Yusuf S, Reddy S, Ounpuu S. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases, part II: variations in cardiovascular disease by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies. 2001; Circulation104: 2855–2864.
[04] Reddy KS, Yusuf S. Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries.1998; Circulation 97:596–601.
[05] Frieden TR, Berwick DM. The “Million Hearts” Initiative - Preventing Heart Attacks and Strokes. NE ngl J Med 29September 2011; e27:365.
[06] CDC:Metabolic disorder in National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA800-CDC-INFO (800-232-4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 - Contact CDC–INFO.Page last reviewed: February 6, 2013.Page last updated: February 6, 2013
[07] Stern M, Williams K, Gonzalez VC. Does the metabolic syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and or cardiovascular disease diabetes care 2004, 27 (11):2676-81.
[08] Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults – Executive Summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA. 2001; 285: 2486-2497.
[09] Alberti KG, Zimmet PZ .Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications .Part I: Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Report o WHO consultation .Diabet Med 1998, 15:539.
[10] Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ. The metabolic syndrome .Lancet 2005; 365:1415-28.
[11] Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Met. 2006; 23: 469- 480.
[12] Alberti KGMM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome-a new world-wide definition. A Consensus Statement from the new International Diabetes Federation. Diabetes Med 2006; 23: 469-80.
[13] Burke A P, Virmani R.. Pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction. The Medical Clinics of North America, (2007); 91(4): 553-572.
[14] Clark L, Atat F. Metabolic syndrome in Africans Americans. Clinical cardiology 2007; 30:161-164.
[15] CDC. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2011. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
[16] Clavijo LC, Pinto TL, Kuchulakanti PK. Metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with increased infarct size and in-hospital complications. Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2006; 7:7-11.
[17] Aronson D, Rayfield EL, Chesebro JH. Mechanisms determining course and outcome of diabetic patients who have had acute myocardial infarction. Ann Intern Med.1997; 126:296-306.
[18] Khalid A, Kadhim S, Prashanth P, Al-ZakwaniI.Prevalence, Characteristics, and In-Hospital Outcomes of Metabolic Syndrome Among Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients From Oman.2011, Angiology, 62(5):381-389.
[19] Jassim A, Mohammad Z, Ayman E, Singh R, Wafa R, Abdulla MS et al. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome in Six Middle Eastern Countries, The journal of clinical hypertension2010; 12 :11.
[20] Malmberg K, Nohammar A, Wedel H, Ryden L. Glycometabolic state at admission: important risk marker of mortality in conventionally treated patients with diabetes mellitus and acute myocardial infarction: long- term results from the diabetes and insulin –glucose infusion in acute myocardial infarction (DIGAMI) study. Circulation 1999; 99:2626-2632.
[21] Steptoe A. Psychosocial factors in the etiology of coronary heart disease. Heart1999; 82: 258–9
[22] Su CH, Fang CU, ChenJS, PoHL, ChouLP, ChiangCY et at.Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Relationship with Cardiovascular Disease among Hypertensive Patients 55-80 Years of Age Acta Cardiol Sin 2011; 27:229-37
[23] Kathiresan S, Otvos JD, Sullivan LM, Keyes MJ, Schaefer EJ, Wilson PW, et al. Increased small low-density lipoprotein particle number: a prominent feature of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2006; 113:20–9.
[24] Deedwania P, Barter P, Carmena R, Fruchart JC, Grundy SM, Haffner S et al.; Treating to New Targets Investigators. Reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome: analysis of the Treating to New Targets study. Lancet. Espania 2006; 368:919–28.
[25] Athyros VG, Mikhailidis DP, Kakafika AI, Karagiannis A, Hatzitolios A, Tziomalos K et al. Identifying and attaining LDL-C goals: mission accomplished? Next target: new therapeutic options to raise CHDL levels. Curr Drug Targets USA. 2007; 8:483–8.
[26] Kim JY, Mun HS, Lee BK, Yoon SB, Choi EY, Min PK et al. Impact of metabolic syndrome and its individual components on the presence and severity of angiographic coronary artery disease. Yonsei Med J.2010; 51:676–82.
[27] Pasternak RC, Abrams J, Greenland P. Identification of CHD risk. J Amer Coll Cardiol 2003;41(11):1855-1917.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - 2017 American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.