International Journal of Plant Science and Ecology
Articles Information
International Journal of Plant Science and Ecology, Vol.3, No.1, Feb. 2017, Pub. Date: Oct. 17, 2017
Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) [Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae] and Practices of Its Integrated Management in Cotton
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[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan Abstract.
This article pinpoints pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), which is a worldwide insect of cotton and in some regions of the world, it is the key pest resulting in major cause of yield loss. Adult moths lay eggs on cotton bolls, once hatched larvae eat seeds and damage fibres of cotton reducing yield and quality of produce. High yield losses can occur in cotton when P. gossypiella larvae emerge from eggs and quickly eat their way into squares or bolls causing major economic damage. Cotton bolls of 10-24 days old are most susceptible to pink bollworm attack, resulting in failure of buds to open, fruit shedding, lint damage and seed loss. Integrated pest management practices for pink bollworm are destroying of cotton sticks after harvest or remaining bolls, burning of affected bolls under heaps of cotton sticks, turning the heaps over to expose bolls to sunlight and after final picking letting livestock to graze on unwanted bolls to reduce the pest attack in next season. Burn the debris of cotton ginning factories, expose seed of the next crop to sunlight (sun drying) for 8 hours one week before sowing and crop irrigation should be minimise after 30th September. Deep ploughing of field after harvest by deep furrow turning plough is found magnificent and do not apply nitrogenous fertilizer after 15th of August. Monitor pest at flowering stage twice a week, look for twisted rosette flowers and bolls from the beginning of flowering stage, and eggs can be found on the boll. Direct control measures are taken when 5 bolls or flowers per 100 samples are affected. Use of Trichogramma chilonis cards can destroy eggs before they hatch and use 10-15 cards per acre. Combinations of biological agent Trichogramma and chemical control have proved successful for control of pink bollworm, and Bacillus thuringiensis has also been found to be effective with chemical insecticides. Pheromone PB-Rope L should be used at 100-200 ropes/ acre and higher rates must be used if trap counts are consistently above economic threshold of 7 adults per day and ought to be replaced after about 3.5 months with fresh ones. Release of sterile insects, cultural controls, intensive monitoring with pheromone baited traps for males and adults mating disruption, boll sampling, very limited use of pesticides, widespread use of genetically engineered cotton, and use of nematodes as control agents are effective techniques in an integrated pest management program.
Cotton Production, Pink Bollworm, Pectinophora, Pest Survey, Pesticides
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