Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering
Articles Information
Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Vol.2, No.2, Apr. 2016, Pub. Date: Mar. 4, 2016
An Assessment of Groundwater Pollution from On-Site Sanitation in Malkerns, Swaziland
Pages: 11-17 Views: 808 Downloads: 664
Authors
[01] Bruce Roy Thulane Vilane, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Swaziland.
[02] Takhona Lindelwa Dlamini, National Agricultural Marketing Board, Matsapa, Swaziland.
Abstract
Informal settlements are characterized by wide use of septic tanks and pit latrines as a form of sanitation. The high density of such is influenced by rapid population growth resulting in groundwater pollution. An experiment was designed to assess groundwater pollution from on-site sanitation in Malkerns, Swaziland. Six groundwater samples were taken from Malkerns informal settlements boreholes. This was achieved using grab sampling with three replications. The samples were tested for physical, chemical, and bacteriological groundwater quality. Treated tap water was used as a control. The Swaziland Water Services Cooperation (SWSC) laboratory was used for the groundwater testing and analysis. The results were compared to the SWSC drinking water quality guidelines. Results reflected that groundwater physical quality was acceptable, and the chemical quality (nitrates) was within the SWSC drinking water quality guideline (10 mg/L) having the highest value at 4.47 mg/L. Malkerns groundwater was fairly soft (58.77 mg/L). However, the bacteriological quality was not acceptable; all six boreholes were above the 0 per 100 ml SWSC guidelines. This was the case for both the faecal and total coliforms tested. Five out of six boreholes tested positive for faecal coliforms, the highest value being 1354 per 100 ml. The most contaminated borehole by total coliforms had a value of 13000 per 100 ml. Only the treated tap water (control) fell below the SWSC guidelines as expected.
Keywords
Groundwater, Pollution, Onsite, Sanitation, Malkerns, Swaziland
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