Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering
Articles Information
Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Vol.3, No.1, Feb. 2017, Pub. Date: Jan. 21, 2017
An Assessment of the Mvutjini Earth Dam Water Quality at Kalanga, Swaziland
Pages: 13-19 Views: 830 Downloads: 402
Authors
[01] Zodwa Phindile Ndlela, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Swaziland.
[02] Bruce Roy Thulane Vilane, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Swaziland.
[03] Nothando Fortunate Nkambule, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Swaziland.
Abstract
Dams can provide the water needed for various applications in arid and semi-arid environments. However, most of these surface water sources are polluted with pollution from various sources including agricultural pollution. A study was carried out to assess the quality of the Mvutjini earth dam reservoir water. The research was an experiment with one treatment; the Mvutjini earth dam reservoir water. Water samples were collected from three different sites of the dam, used as water collection points by the community. The samples were collected after it had rained enough to cause runoff (Wet Season) and when it had not rained (Dry Season). The dam water was tested for Physical (pH and Turbidity), Biological (Total coliforms and faecal coliforms) and Chemical quality (Nitrates and hardness). The results reflected that the physical quality with respect to the mean pH for the Mvutjini dam water was 7.45, 7.31 and 6.80 for the Wet Season, Dry Season and the treated SWSC tap water (control), respectively. The pH was significantly different between the seasons. The mean Turbidity was 0.96 NTU and 0.74 NTU during the Wet and Dry Seasons, respectively, while the SWSC treated tap water, which was used as the control had a turbidity of 0.55 NTU. The mean turbidity was significantly different between the seasons. The bacteriological quality (Total coliforms and faecal coliforms) results indicated that the mean Total coliforms were 3654 counts per 100 ml (Wet Season), 2420 counts per 100 ml (Dry Season). The mean faecal coliforms i.e. E. coli were higher (3433 counts/100 ml) in the Wet Season than during the Dry Season (2100 counts/ 100 ml). The chemical quality (nitrates and hardness) results indicated that the mean nitrates were 7.2 mg/L and 9.8 mg/L during the Dry Season and Wet Season, respectively. The amount of nitrates present in all the water samples was below the WHO water quality guideline (< 10 mg/L). The mean hardness was 59.7 mg/L, 56.5 mg/L and 53.7 mg/L for the Wet Season, Dry Season and the SWSC treated tap water, respectively. It was concluded that the Mvutjini dam reservoir water was polluted with E. coli, while the chemical quality (nitrates and hardness) were acceptable.
Keywords
Mvutjini, Earth Dam, Water Quality, Kalanga, Swaziland
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