Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development
Articles Information
Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development, Vol.6, No.2, Jun. 2020, Pub. Date: Jul. 7, 2020
Essential Services by Pollen Vectors to Ecosystem Impacted by Incidents of Pesticides Toxicity Alongside Pollinators Protection and Conservation
Pages: 48-56 Views: 126 Downloads: 89
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, Agricultural Biotechnology, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.
Abstract
Indeed, pollen vectors provide an essential service to ecosystem termed as pollination, which is responsible for providing with a wide variety of crop production, food, increasing outputs of the leading food crops as well as many plant-derived medicines worldwide. At least one-third of the world's agricultural crops mainly horticultural plants depend upon pollination provided by insects and other animals such as birds, rodents and bats. This article is helpful to recognize the characteristics of pollen vectors, their requirements for food and shelter, pesticide toxicity incidents, protection against mortality and conservation of biotic pollinators agents. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the male parts of a flower to the female parts of a flower of the same species, which results in fertilization of plant ovaries and the production of seeds. Pesticides are substances used to eliminate unwanted pests, but, unfortunately pollen vectors are greatly affected by insecticides. The main insect pollinators are bees that are the best known and widely managed pollinators, and there are also many other animal species that contribute some level of pollination services to crops and serve very important in natural plant communities. Pollinator communities, both wild and managed, have been declining over the last half century and stand at critical point in their own survival as pesticide uses in agricultural and urban areas increased. Research has shown that the pesticides can damage individual’s navigation, learning, food collection, lifespan, resistance to disease and fertility in pollinators. Now more than ever, it is critical to consider practices that can benefit pollinators by providing of habitats free of pesticides, full of nectar and pollen resources, and with ample potential nesting resources. The pollen adheres to the vector's body parts such as face, legs, mouthparts, hair, feathers and moist spots; depending on the particular vector. Such transport is vital to the pollination of many plant species, and certainly, more nectar and pollen sources provided by more flowering plants and trees will help to improve their health and numbers. Increasing the number of pollinator-friendly gardens and landscapes facilities might help to revive the health of bees, butterflies, birds, bats and other pollinators. Agrochemicals should never be sprayed on flowering crops especially if bees are active and the plants require pollination, conserving and restoring of natural habitat, growing flowering plants preferred by pollinators, promoting mixed farming systems, establishing nectar corridors for migratory pollinators, providing habitats alongside cropland for pollinator nests and food, discouraging misuse of agrochemicals, and encouraging of integrated pest management practices are imperative.
Keywords
Pollen, Attracting Pollinators, Ecology, Conservation, Ecosystem Service
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