Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development
Articles Information
Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development, Vol.6, No.3, Sep. 2020, Pub. Date: Aug. 8, 2020
Spatial Analysis of Flood Hazard for the Risk Reduction in Rwanda
Pages: 57-65 Views: 108 Downloads: 109
Authors
[01] Jean Damascene Rutagengwa, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda.
[02] Lamek Nahayo, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda.
[03] Mugisha Philbert, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda.
[04] Elizabeth Yambabariye, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda.
[05] Justin Nsanzabaganwa, Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali, Kigali, Rwanda.
Abstract
Mapping of flood hazard reveals its occurrence likelihood and increases the preparedness and adaptation among the community. This study aimed to spatially analyze flood hazard towards its risk reduction in Kamonyi district, southern Rwanda. The study used secondary data on flood events (deaths and injuries, destroyed houses and damaged croplands, road and electrical lines damaged and lost livestock) collected from the Rwanda’s Ministry in Charge of Emergency Management (MINEMA) from January 2013 to April 2020. These recent flood events, literature review and experts opinions helped to select ten flood triggering factors namely elevation, slope, rainfall, land use and land cover (LULC), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), distance from roads, distance from rivers, lithology and soil texture. These factors were merged together to produce flood hazard map through the Fuzzy Overlay method of the Spatial Analyst Tools in the Geographic Information System (GIS). The analysis highlighted elevation, slope and rainfall as major factors and flood mapping marked the Rukoma, Gacurabwenge, Musambira, Nyarubaka and Kayumbu sectors as highly prone to flood. For the prediction of flood occurrence from 2020 to 2050, the authors used Microsoft Excel and referred to recent flood cases. The results showed that Karama and Rugarika sectors are likely exposed to future occurrence. For the flood risk reduction, policy makers are suggested to consider each sector since the experience on flood differs by sector and rainwater harvesting along with development of terraces would help to minimize the runoff from which results flooding. This flood hazard mapping can help decision-makers, economic operators and other occupants to determine the areas that may potentially be impacted while the prediction of flood future occurrence will help the decision makers in better planning as well.
Keywords
Flood, Geographic Information System, Hazard, Kamonyi District, Risk Reduction, Rwanda
References
[01] Szewrański S, Świąder M, Kazak JK, Tokarczyk‐Dorociak K, van Hoof J. Socio‐Environmental Vulnerability Mapping for Environmental and Flood Resilience Assessment: The Case of Ageing and Poverty in the City of Wrocław, Poland. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 2018; 14: 592-7.
[02] Wing OE, Bates PD, Smith AM, Sampson CC, Johnson KA, Fargione J, et al. Estimates of present and future flood risk in the conterminous United States. Environmental Research Letters 2018; 13: 034023.
[03] MIDIMAR. National Contingency for Flood and Landslides, Ministry of Disaster Management and Refugees, (MIDIMAR), Kigali- Rwanda. 2014: 47.
[04] Mind'je R, Li L, Amanambu AC, Nahayo L, Nsengiyumva JB, Gasirabo A et al. Flood susceptibility modeling and hazard perception in Rwanda. International journal of disaster risk reduction 2019; 38: 101211.
[05] MINEMA. Ministry in Charge of Emergency Management, Disaster Management Information System, Kigali, Rwanda. 2020.
[06] Ntawigenera N, Yadufashije C. Environmental Protection as Disasters’ Risk Reduction Strategy in Rwanda: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Community Members in Kamonyi District. International Journal of Research in Environmental Science (IJRES) 2019; 5: 1-9.
[07] Bizimana JP, Schilling M. Geo-Information Technology for Infrastructural Flood Risk Analysis in Unplanned Settlements: a case study of informal settlement flood risk in the Nyabugogo flood plain, Kigali City, Rwanda. Geospatial techniques in urban hazard and disaster analysis: Springer; 2009. p. 99-124.
[08] Mugisha F. Modelling and Assessment of Urban Flood Hazards Based on End-user Requirements: Kigali, Rwanda: University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation (ITC); 2015.
[09] Munyaneza O, Nzeyimana YK, Wali UG. Hydraulic Structures Design for Flood Control in the Nyabugogo Wetland, Rwanda. Kigali, Rwanda 2013.
[10] Ntawigenera, N., and Yadufashije, C. (2019). Environmental Protection as Disasters’ Risk Reduction Strategy in Rwanda: Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Community Members in Kamonyi District. International Journal of Research in Environmental Science (IJRES) 5, 1-9.
[11] DDP. District Development Plan (DDP: 2013-2018) of Kamonyi ditsrict, Southern Rwanda. 2013. p. 1-119.
[12] River N. Identification of flood prone areas in Kigali City: UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA; 2015.
[13] USGS (2019). USGS. 2018. United States Geological Survey, Science for a Changing World, avaialable at: https://earthexplorer.usgs.gov/, accessed on July 2019.
[14] RMA. Rwanda Meteorological Agency, Meteo Rwanda Map Room, Climate Data Library. Kigali, Rwanda. 2020.
[15] Belle P, Aunay B, Bernardie S, Grandjean G, Ladouche B, Mazué R, et al. The application of an innovative inverse model for understanding and predicting landslide movements (Salazie cirque landslides, Reunion Island). Landslides 2014; 11: 343-55.
[16] Amler E, Schmidt M, Menz G. Definitions and mapping of east African wetlands: A review. Remote Sensing 2015; 7: 5256-82.
[17] Shi-Biao B, Jian W, Guo-Nian L, Ping-Gen Z, Sheng-Shan H, Su-Ning X. GIS-based and data-driven bivariate landslide-susceptibility mapping in the Three Gorges area, China. Pedosphere 2009; 19: 14-20.
[18] Dottori F, Salamon P, Bianchi A, Alfieri L, Hirpa FA, Feyen L. Development and evaluation of a framework for global flood hazard mapping. Advances in water resources 2016; 94: 87-102.
[19] McCallum I, Liu W, See L, Mechler R, Keating A, Hochrainer-Stigler S, et al. Technologies to support community flood disaster risk reduction. International journal of disaster risk science 2016; 7: 198-204.
[20] Alfieri L, Salamon P, Bianchi A, Neal J, Bates P, Feyen L. Advances in pan‐European flood hazard mapping. Hydrological processes 2014; 28: 4067-77.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.