Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Articles Information
Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Vol.1, No.4, Oct. 2015, Pub. Date: Jan. 16, 2016
The Influence of Excessive Alcohol Consumption, Gender, Age, Enrollment Status and Academic Class on Risky Sexual Behavior Among Predominantly Black College Students
Pages: 144-152 Views: 2377 Downloads: 1242
[01] Maurice Y. Mongkuo, Department of Government & History, Fayetteville State University, North Carolina, Fayetteville, U.S.A..
[02] Sabine Quantrell, Department of Political Science, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.A..
This study examined the effect of excessive alcohol consumption, gender, age, enrollment status, and academic class on risky sexual behavior among Predominantly Black College (PBC) students. Survey of PBC students aged 18 and above was conducted to obtain their opinion about the consumption of various alcohol beverages (i.e., beer, wine, and hard liquor), and their involvement in risky sexual behavior. Exploratory factor analysis identified items measuring the consumption level of each type of alcohol beverage with an acceptable internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to: (a) identify the factorial structure of the orthogonal measurement model; (b) determine the significance and magnitude of effect of the alcohol consumption measures on the risky sexual behavior measures; and (c) test the fit of the measurement and structural model to the data. The CFA produced an alcohol-related risky sexual behavior model causal model with good psychometric properties. Beer and hard liquor consumption emerged as having large positive and significant effects on risky sexual behavior; and wine consumption had no meaningful effect on sexual behavior among the PBC students. As for the effect of the control variables in the model on risky sexual behavior, gender had a large effect on risky sexual behavior with female college students being more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior after consuming alcohol than their male counterparts. Academic class had a moderate but significant effect on risky sexual behavior, with lower class students being more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior from alcohol consumption than upper class students. Age had a moderate, but insignificant influence on alcohol-related risky sexual behavior, with older students more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than younger students. Wine consumption, enrollment status, and age had no meaningful effect on risky sexual behavior. These findings are, for the most part, consistent with previous research. Collectively, the findings suggest that to reduce alcohol-related risky sexual behavior on PBC campuses more attention should be given to controlling excessive consumption of hard liquor and beer, especially among female and lower class students.
Excessive Alcohol Consumption, Binge Drinking, Confirmatory Factor Analysis, Structural Equation Modeling, Risky Sexual Behavior, Predominantly Black College
[01] Griffin JA, Umstattd MR, Usdan SL. Alcohol use and high risk sexual behavior among collegiate women: A review of research on alcohol myopia theory. Journal of American College Health. 2010; 58, 6, 523-32.
[02] McGuire F, Dawe, M., Shield, K.D., Rehm, J., Fisher, B. (2011). Driving under the Influence of Cannabis or Alcohol in a Cohort of High Frequency Cannabis Users: Prevalence and Reflections on current Intervention. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 2011; 53 (2), 247-59.
[03] Arria, A. M., Zarate, E. M., Vincent, K. B., Wish, E. D., O'Grady, Kevin al. "Prospective associations between alcohol and drug consumption and risky sex among female college students. Journal of Alcohol & Drug Education. 2009; 53.2, 71-98.
[04] Cooper, L.M. Alcohol Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among College Students and Youth: Evaluating the Evidence. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2002; 14, 101-117.
[05] Buescher, P.A., Martin, B.A. & Foss, R. D. Health Consequences of Underage Alcohol Use in North Carolina. North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services, State Center for Health Statistics, 1998; 111, 2-10.
[06] Hingson, R.W., Heeren, SC. D., Zakocs, R.C., Kopstein, A. & Wechsler, H. Magnitude of Alcohol-Related Mortality and Morbidity among U.S. College Students Ages 18 – 24. Journal of Studies on Alcohol; 2002. 136-144.
[07] Gilchrist, Heidi, Smith, K., Magee, C. A. & Jones, S. A Hangover and a One-Night Stand: Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behavior among Female Students at an Australian University. Youth Studies Australia, 2012; 31(2), 35-43.
[08] Wechsler, H., Lee, J.E., Nelson, T.F. & Kuo, M. Underage College Students’ Drinking Behavior, access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies. Journal of the American College Health, 2002; 50(5), 223-236.
[09] White, A.M., Kraus, C.L., Flom, J.L., Kestenbaum, L.A., Mitchell, J.R., Shah, K. & Swartzwelder, H.S. College Students Lack Knowledge of Standard Drink Volumes: Implications for Definitions of Risky Drinking Based on Survey Data. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2005; 29(4), 631-638.
[10] Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G. W., Davenport, A. & Castillo, S. Correlates of college student binge drinking. American Journal of Public Health, 1995; 85, 921-926.
[11] Abbey, A., Saenz, C., Buck, P. O., Parkhill, M. R. & Hayman, L. W., Jr. The effects of acute alcohol consumption, cognitive reserve, partner risk, and gender on sexual decision making. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2006; 67, 113-121.
[12] Seto, M.C., & Barbaree, H.E. Role of alcohol in sexual aggression. Clinical Psychology Review, 1995; 15, 6, 545–66.
[13] Steele, Claude M.; Josephs, Robert A. Alcohol myopia: Its prized and dangerous effects. American Psychologist, 1990; 45(8), 921-933. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.45.8.921
[14] Anderson, P. B. & Mathieu, D. A. College students' high-risk sexual behavior following alcohol consumption. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 1996; 22, 259-264.
[15] Curcio, AL, Mak, AS, George AM. Do adolescent delinquency and problem drinking share psychosocial risk factors? A literature review. Addictive Behaviors, 2013; 38, 2003-13.
[16] Graves, K. L. (1995). Risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among young adults: Results from a national survey. American Journal of Health Promotion, 1995; 10, 27-36.
[17] O'Hare, T. Drinking and risky sexual behavior in young women and men: A covalidation study. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education, 1998; 43, 66-77.
[18] Wechsler, H., Lee, J. E., Kuo, M. & Lee, H. College binge drinking in the 1990s--A continuing problem: Results of the Harvard School of Public Health 1999 College Alcohol Study. Journal of American College Health, 2000; 48, 199-210.
[19] Bon SR, Hittner JB. & Lawandales JP. Normative perceptions in relation to substance use and HIV-risky sexual behaviors of college students. The Journal of Psychology, 2001; 135, 165-178.
[20] Goldstein, A. L., Barnett, N. P., Pedlow, C. T. & Murphy, J. G. Drinking in conjunction with sexual experiences among at-risk college student drinkers. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 2007; 68, 697-705.
[21] Testa, M. & Collins, R. L. Alcohol and risky sexual behavior: Event-based analyses among a sample of high-risk women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 1997; 11, 190-201.
[22] Fromme, K., D'amico, E. J. & Katz, E. C. Intoxicated sexual risk taking: an expectancy or cognitive impairment explanation? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1999; 60, 54-63.
[23] Zablotskaa, I.B., Graya, R.H., Serwaddab, D., Nalugodab, F., Kigozib, G., Sewankambob, N., Lutalob, T., Mangenb, F.W., & Wawerc, M. Alcohol use before sex and HIV acquisition: a longitudinal study in Rakai, Uganda, AIDS, 2006; 20: 1191–1196.
[24] Meilman, P. W. Alcohol-induced sexual behavior on campus. Journal of American College Health, 1993; 42, 27-31.
[25] Chesson, H. W., Harrison, P. & Stall, R. Changes in alcohol consumption and in sexually transmitted disease incidence rates in the United States: 1983-1998. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2003; 64, 623-630.
[26] Dermen, K. H. & Cooper, M. L. Inhibition conflict and alcohol expectancy as moderators of alcohol's relationship to condom use. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 2000; 8, 198-206.
[27] Ullman, S. E., Karabatsos, G., & Koss, M. P. Alcohol and sexual assault in a national sample of college women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1999. 14(6); 603-625.
[28] Parks, K.A. & Fals-Stewart, W. The Temporal Relationship Between College Women's Alcohol Consumption and Victimization Experiences. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 2004; 28, (4), 625–629.
[29] Parks, K,A.; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Bradizza, C.M.; Romosz, A.M. Factors influencing the temporal relationship between alcohol consumption and experiences with aggression among college women. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 2008; 22 (2), 210-18. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.22.2.210
[30] Poulson, R. L., Eppler, M. A., Satterwhite, T. N., Wuensch, K. L. & Bass, L. A. Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in college students. Journal of American College Health, 1998; 46, 227-32.
[31] Brown TA. Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2006.
[32] Marlow, R.NM., Devieau, J.G., Jennings, T., Lucenko, B.A., & Kalichman, S.C. Substance-abusing adolescents at varying levels of HIV risk: Psychosocial characteristics, drug use, and sexual behavior. Journal of Substance Abuse, 2001; 13, 103-117.
[33] Grossman, M. & Saffer, H. Beer Taxes, the Legal Drinking Age and Youth Motor Vehicle Fatalities. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working Paper, 1986; 1914, 1-50.
[34] Wechsler, H., Seibring, M., Liu, I-C. & Ahl, M. Colleges respond to Student Binge Drinking: Reducing Student Demand or Limiting Access. Journal of American College Health, 2004; 52(4), 159-168.
[35] Center for Disease Control & Prevention. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report. Atlanta: Author, 2006.
[36] Center for Disease Control & Prevention. “Estimate of New HIV infections in the United States”. 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2008 from http//
[37] Center for Disease Control & Prevention HIV Surveillance Report, 2008, vol.18, Atlanta: Author, 2008a
[38] Center for Disease Control & Prevention “HIV among African Americans: Fast Facts”. 2011. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from
[39] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC surveillance summaries, youth risk behavior surveillance: National College Health Risk Behavior Survey, United States, 1995. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Atlanta: Author, 1997.
[40] Mongkuo MY, Mushi RJ, Thomas R. Perception and Socio-cognitive Determinants of HIV/AIDS among Students attending a Historically Black College and University in the United States of America, Journal of AIDS and HIV Research; March 2010 2(2): 32-47.
[41] Mongkuo MY, Lucas N, Taylor A. The effects of motivation and knowledge on HIV prevention behavior among historically black college students: An application of the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Greener Journal of Medical Sciences. February 2012; 2(2):1-7.
[42] Leone P, Hightow L, Foust E, Owen-O’Dowd J, Phillip S, Gray P, Jones B, Fitzpatrick L, Millett G, Stall R, Holmberg S, Greenberg A, Ahdieh-Grant L, & Eure C. HIV transmission among black college students and non-student men who have sex with men—North Carolina, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 2004; 53(32): 731-34.
[43] Choi KH, Coates TJ. Prevention and HIV infection. AIDS. 1994; 8: 1371-1389.
[44] Kelly JA. Innovation in the application of social cognitive principles to develop prevention interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among gays and bisexual men. In Chesney MA, Antoni MH (eds.). Innovative Approaches to Health Psychology: Prevention and Treatment Lessons from AIDS. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association, 71-96. 2002.
[45] Duncan C, Miller DM, Borskey EJ, Fomby B, Dawson P, Davis L. Barriers to safe sex practices among African American college students. Journal of the National Medical Association; 2002; 94: 944-51.
[46] Bazargan M, Kelly EM, Stein JA, Husaini BA, Bazargan SH. Correlates of HIV risk-taking among African American college students: The effect of HIV Knowledge, motivation, and behavioral skills. Journal of the National Medical Association. 2000; 92: 391-407.
[47] Opt SD, Loffredo D. College students and HIV/AIDS: more insights on knowledge, testing, and sexual practices. Journal of Psychology; 2004; 1359: 389-403.
[48] Anastasi M, Sawyer RG, Pinciaro PJ. A descriptive analysis of students seeking HIV antibody testing at a university health service. Journal of American College Health; 1999; 48: 13-20.
[49] Leedy, P.D. & Ormrod, J.C. Practical Research: Planning and Design (2010) 185, 198. New York: Pearson Publishing.
[50] Khavari, K.A. & Farber, D.F. (1978). A Profile Instrument for the Quantification and Assessment of Alcohol Consumption. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1978, 39(9), 1525-1539.
[51] National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2009 National Survey of Alcohol and Drug Use Alcohol Questionnaire. Retrieved April 28, 2013 from
[52] Arbuckle JL. Amos 17.0 User’s Guide. Crawford, FL: AMOS Development Corporation; 2007.
[53] Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE, Tatham RL. Multivariate Data Analysis. Pearson/Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River: Pearson/Prentice Hall; 2006.
[54] Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling. 1999; 6: 1-55.
[55] Blunch NJ. Introduction to Structural Equation Modeling Using SPSS and AMOS. Los Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications; 2010.
[56] Brown TA. Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Applied Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2006.
[57] Akaike H. Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika. 1978; 52: 317-332.
[58] Bozdogan H. Model selection and Akaike’s information criteria (AIC): The general theory and its analytic extensions.” Psychometrika. 1987; 52, 345-370.
[59] Hoelter JW. The analysis of covariance structure with incomplete data: A developmental perspective. In T.D. Little, J.A. Bovaird, & N.A. Card (Eds.) Modeling contextual effects in longitudinal studies. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 13-32; 1983.
[60] Hu L, Bentler PM. Evaluating model fit. In R.H. Hoyle (Ed.). Structural equation modeling: concept, issues, and applications (pp. 79-99), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 1995.
[61] Byrne BM. Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concept, applications, and programming (2nd Edition). New York, NY: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group; 2010.
[62] Mardia KV. Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications.” Bikometrika. 1970; 57: 519-30.
[63] Mardia KV. Application of some measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis in testing normality and robustness studies”. Sankhya. 1974; B36: 115-28.
[64] Keith T. Multiple Regression and Beyond. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn and Bacon; 2006.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.