Public Health and Preventive Medicine
Articles Information
Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Vol.1, No.1, Apr. 2015, Pub. Date: Mar. 25, 2015
Spread of Communicable Diseases in Post Disaster Scenario
Pages: 10-16 Views: 4955 Downloads: 1550
[01] Muhammad Yasar Shah, Civil Engineering Wing, MCE Risalpur, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
[02] Arshad Ali, Civil Engineering Wing, MCE Risalpur, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
[03] Maqbol Sadiq Awan, Civil Engineering Wing, MCE Risalpur, National University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.
In post disasters scenario communicable diseases results in challenges in the form of deaths and burden of disease on system. This study investigated the association of natural disasters with communicable diseases in internally displaced people and their health outcomes. The purpose and objective of this paper is to identify and quantify the risk of spread of communicable diseases in post disaster scenario, identify innovative opportunities to deal with these issue with the aim of improving public health and encouraging sustainable development process in Pakistan by highlighting the key protective measures and risk factors of communicable diseases and its burden, which will help in managing this problem through multi-disciplinary, incorporated, and multi-sectoral approaches. There are certain risk factors which promote and enhance the spread and transmission of communicable diseases like acute watery diarrhea, measles, malaria, polio and acute respiratory infection. This burden in the form of mortality and morbidity preventable as successful interventions are available. Effective disease surveillance, adequate and clean water supply, properly planned and ventilated shelter, sufficient food, proper hygiene and sanitation along with immunization, awareness and health education is critical. Delivery of the services is often compromised by damage to infrastructure, poor coordination and central command system, insecurity, religious extremism, and loss of health staff. Existing intervention must be implemented in more coordinated and systematic way in post disaster settings, preparedness plans must include Sphere standards to effectively prepare for outbreaks. Further research is necessary to identify effective interventions.
Disasters, Environment, Communicable Diseases, Surveillance
[01] Aaby P. (1988), Malnutrition and overcrowding, intensive exposure in severe measles infection: review of community studies. Review of Infectious Diseases 1988; 10: 478–91.
[02] Centre for disease control and prevention (CDC), Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Early Warning Disease Surveillance after a Flood Emergency — Pakistan, 2010, Weekly Vol. 61, No. 49 December 14, 2012.
[03] Chin, J., ed. (2000). Control of Communicable Diseases Manual, An official report of the
[04] American Public Health Association, 17th edition. American Public Health Association, Washington.
[05] John T. Watson, Michelle Gayer, and Maire A. Connolly (2007), Epidemics after Natural Disasters, EID journal, Volume 13, Number 1—January 2007,.
[06] Khan MMH, Kraemer A, Pruefer-Kraemer L (2011) Climate change and infectious diseases in megacities of the Indian subcontinent. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 137–15
[07] Masozera, M., Bailey, M. & Kerchner. C. (2007), Distribution of impacts of natural disasters across income groups: A case study of New Orleans, Ecological Economics, vol-63, p299-306.
[08] Máire A Connolly, Michelle Gayer, Michael J Ryan, Peter Salama, Paul Spiegel, David L Heymann (2004), Communicable diseases in complex emergencies: impact and Challenges, Lancet 2004; 364: 1974–83 World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
[09] McCarthy, M.C., Haberberger, R.L., Salib, A.W., Soliman, B.A., El-Tigani, A., Khalid, I.O., & Watts, D.M. (1996). Evaluation of arthropod-borne viruses and other infectious disease pathogens as the causes of febrile illnesses in the Khartoum Province of Sudan. Journal of Medical Virology, 48, 141-146.
[10] Murray C J L and Lopez A. D (1996), the global burden of disease – Summary (WHO, WB and Harvard School of Public Health).
[11] Piper-Jenks, N., Horowitz, H.W., & Schwartz, E. (2000). Risk of hepatitis E infection totravelers. Journal of Travel Medicine, ed. 7, pp194-9.
[12] Sztajnkrycer MD, Madsen BE, Ba´ez AA (2006), Unstable ethical plateaus and disaster triage. Emergency Medical Journal N Am 24:749–768.
[13] Toole MJ, Waldman RJ (1988), An analysis of mortality trends among refugee populations in Somalia, Sudan, and Thailand. Bull World Health Organ 1988; 66: 237–47.
[14] Toole MJ, Waldman RJ. (1993), Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger and public health. JAMA, 270: 600–05.
[15] World Health Organization, Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2007.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.