American Journal of Food Science and Health
Articles Information
American Journal of Food Science and Health, Vol.2, No.6, Dec. 2016, Pub. Date: Dec. 27, 2016
Diseases Transmitted by Blood Sucking Mites and Integrated Mite Management for Their Prevention
Pages: 169-175 Views: 1195 Downloads: 433
[01] Muhammad Sarwar Sarwar, Department of Entomology, Nuclear Institute for Food & Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan.
On a worldwide basis, mites are important nuisance pests and some are capable of transmitting disease causing agents to humans. There are many different species of bloodsucking mites, some mites live in people’s skin (mites that cause scabies), while other species may take blood meals on human hosts. For this reason, this article has been designed to highlight disease agents vectored by mites and evaluate various tactics for their efficacy in managing populations especially in houses. Fortunately, the majority of mites are free-living, but few of species are serious parasites of humans. Most of these are external parasites (they feed on the exterior of their hosts), but some species inhabit ear canals, lungs, intestine and bladder of vertebrate hosts. Their biting and bloodsucking behaviour causes considerable discomfort to their hosts and a few species also cause serious allergic reactions, such as asthma, in peoples. Understanding of mite’s biology and symptoms associated with mite infestations can help to determine if they are the actual cause of a particular problem. Leptotrombidium species of trombiculid larval mites (chiggers) can transmit scrub typhus in endemic regions, and house-mouse mite can transmit rickettsial pox in both urban and rural dwellings. Rickettsial disease encompasses a group of diseases caused by microorganisms rickettsiae that occupy a position between bacteria and viruses, and they can only survive inside cells. These organisms cause disease by damaging blood vessels in various tissues and organs, and in severe cases multiple tissues and organs are affected. Transmissions of disease-causing organisms, primarily of encephalitis, tularemia, asthma, scrub typhus, dermatitis, filariasis and mites as intermediate hosts of tapeworms have been substantiated. Further, mites are mostly ubiquitous and bothersome species of medical importance, and of these, most are scabies mites on human hosts. All patients with scabies and their close household and institutional contacts may be informed that scabies is a highly transmissible ectoparasitic infestation and several topical treatments, and an effective oral treatment are readily available and highly effective. Scratching of bite locations of mites is discouraged as it can result in secondary bacterial infections. Physicians suggest the use of calamine lotions and other itch creams to reduce itching that at times can be intense. Significant progress can be made when a brief exposure to kill surface microbes, mites and their offending by-products to ultraviolet light into a vacuum cleaner is conducted and while removing them. Finally, Integrated Mite Management (IMM) strategy is commercially available wherein vector control is the primary means of preventing vector-borne diseases.
Mite Vector, Allergies, Dust, Integrated Control, Allergens, Disease Prevention
[01] Alexander, J. O. 1984. Arthropods and human skin. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Berlin. p. 177-197.
[02] Andrews, R. M., McCarthy, J., Carapetis, J. R. and Currie, B. J. 2009. Skin disorders, including pyoderma, scabies, and tinea infections. Pediatr. Clin. North Am., 56 (6): 1421-1440.
[03] Ansart, S., Perez, L., Jaureguiberry, S., Danis, M., Bricaire, F. and Caumes, E. 2007. Spectrum of dermatoses in 165 travellers returning from the tropics with skin diseases. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76: 184-186.
[04] Baumstark, P. S., Beck, W. and Hofmann, H. 2007. Rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) dermatitis in a home for disabled persons. Dermatology, 215: 66-68.
[05] Beatty, B. J. and Marquardt, W. C. 1996. The biology of disease vectors. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1 edition. 632 p.
[06] Bellido-Blasco, J. B., Arnedo-Pena, A., Gonzalez-Moran, F., Ripolles-Moles, J. L., Pac-Sa, M. R. and Chiva-Nebot, F. 2000. Dermatitis outbreaks caused by Pyemotes. Med. Clin., 114: 294-296.
[07] Blankenship, M. L. 1990. Mite dermatitis other than scabies. Dermatol. Clin., 8 (2): 265-275.
[08] Chosidow, O. 2006. Scabies. N. Engl. J. Med., 354: 1718-1727.
[09] David, T. 1998. Infant feeding causes all cases of asthma, eczema, and hay fever. Or does it? Arch. Dis. Child., 79 (2): 97-98.
[10] Demetri, G., Bernardin, A., Perez-Serrano, J. and Rodriguez-Caabeiro, F. 1998. Anoplocephalid cestodes of veterinary and medical significance: a review. Folia Parasitologica, 45: 1-8.
[11] Denegri, G. 1993. Review of Oribatid mites as intermediate hosts of tapeworms of the Anoplocephalidae. Experimental and Applied Acarology, 17: 567-580.
[12] Diaz, J. H. 2010. Mite-Transmitted Dermatoses and Infectious Diseases in Returning Travelers. Journal of Travel Medicine, 17 (1): 21-31.
[13] Goddard, J. 1993. Physician's guide to arthropods of medical importance. Boca Raton: CRC Press. 332 p.
[14] James, W. D., Timothy, B. and Dirk, M. 2006. Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. Elsevier Health Sciences; 10th International edition. 961 p.
[15] Kemal, M., Sumer, Z., Toker, M. I., Erdogan, H., Topalkara, A. and Akbulut, M. 2005. The prevalence of Demodex folliculorum in blepharitis patients and the normal population. Ophthal. Epidemiol., 12: 287-290.
[16] Kettle, D. S. 1997. Medical and veterinary entomology. 2nd edition. New York: Oxford University Press.
[17] Koehler, P. G. and Chaskopoulou, A. 2013. Mites That Attack Humans. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Document ENY-218. p. 4.
[18] Krusell, A., Comer, J. A. and Sexton, D. J. 2002. Rickettsialpox in North Carolina: a case report. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 8: 727-728.
[19] Lai, C. H., Huang, C. K., Weng, H. C., Chung, H. C., Liang, S. H., Lin, J. N., Lin, C. W., Hsu, C. Y. and Lin, H. H. 2008. Clinical characteristics of acute Q fever, scrub typhus, and murine typhus with delayed defervescence despite doxycycline treatment. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 79: 441-446.
[20] Lutz, E. A., Sharma, S., Casto, B., Needham, G. and Buckley, T. J. 2010. Effectiveness of UV-C equipped vacuum at reducing culturable surface-bound microorganisms on carpets. Environmental Science and Technology, 44: 9451-9455.
[21] McClure, J. C., Crothers, M. L., Schaefer, J. J., Stanley, P. D., Needham, G. R., Ewing, S. A. and Stich, R. W. 2010. Efficacy of a doxycycline treatment regimen initiated during three different phases of experimental ehrlichiosis. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 54 (12): 5012-5020.
[22] Menzano, A., Rambozzi, L. and Rossi, L. 2004. Outbreak of scabies in human beings, acquired from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). Veterinary Record, 155 (18): 547-568.
[23] Ozturk, M. K., Gunes, T., Kose, M., Coker, C. and Radulovic, S. 2003. Rickettsialpox in Turkey. Emerg. Infect. Dis.; 9: 1498-1499.
[24] Rahdar, M. and Vazirianzadeh, B. 2009. Ornithonyssus bacoti (Dermanyssidae: Acarina) in Ahvaz, SW Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 2 (2): 78-80.
[25] Rather, P. A. and Hassan, I. 2014. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance. Ind. J. Dermatol., 59: 60-6.
[26] Sabol-Jones, M., Karolewski, B., Byford, T. and Cole, J. S. 2005. Ornithonyssus bacoti infestation and elimination from a mouse colony. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 44: 27-30.
[27] Sarwar, M. 2015. Feasibility for Development of Comparative Life Histories and Predation of Predatory Mites in Phytoseiidae Complex and Their Experimental Manipulations for Pests Control. International Journal of Animal Biology, 1 (5): 150-157.
[28] Sarwar, M. 2016 a. Mites- The Tiny Killers to Push Honeybee Colonies into Collapse and Integrated Pest Management. International Journal for Research in Applied Physics, 1 (7): 12-21.
[29] Sarwar, M. 2016 b. Mites (Arachnida: Acarina) Affecting Humans and Steps Taking for the Solution of Problematics. International Journal for Research in Mechanical Engineering, 1 (7): 1-14.
[30] Savilahti, E., Tuomikoski-Jaakkola, P., Jarvenpa, A. L. and Virtanen, M. 1993. Early feeding of preterm infants and allergic symptoms during childhood. Acta Paediatr., 82 (4): 340-344.
[31] Schuster, R., Coetzee, L. and Putterill, J. F. 2000. Oribatid mites (Oribatida) as intermediate hosts of tapeworms of the Family Anoplocephalidae (Cestoda) in South Africa. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research, 67: 49-55.
[32] Service, M. W. 1996. Scrub typhus mites (Trombiculidae). In: Service MW, ed. Medical Entomology for Students. London: Chapman & Hall. p. 256-262.
[33] Sule, H. M. and Thacher, T. D. 2007. Comparison of ivermectin and benzyl benzoate lotion for scabies in Nigerian patients. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 76: 392-395.
[34] Svennberg, K. and Wadso, L. 2005. House dust mites in beds and bedrooms. Lund University, Sweden. 31 p.
[35] Walker, A. 1994. The arthropods of humans and domestic animals. A guide to preliminary identification. London: Chapman and Hall. 213 p.
[36] Watt, G. and Walker, D. H. 2006. Scrub typhus. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical infectious diseases: principles, pathogens & practice, 2nd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingston, 557-562.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - 2017 American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.