American Journal of Food Science and Health
Articles Information
American Journal of Food Science and Health, Vol.3, No.4, Aug. 2017, Pub. Date: Jul. 27, 2017
Miscellaneous Ways to Repel, Treat and Avoid Being Bitten by Sand Flies (Diptera: Pschodidae: Phlebotominae) on Human
Pages: 64-69 Views: 161 Downloads: 166
Authors
[01] Muhammad Sarwar, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
[02] Ayesha Nadeem, Nishter Medical College, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
[03] Muhammad Haroon Sarwar, Punjab Medical College (P. M. C.)- Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
[04] Jaweria Nadeem, Nishter Medical College, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan.
Abstract
Purposely, this article deals to control sand flies in human’s habitation as well as how to treat and prevent their bites to avoid the problem in the future. Though both male and female sand flies feed on plant nectar, yet the females also feed on blood as they need protein from blood for egg laying and reproductive cycles. In general, sand fly bites are very painful and cause symptoms like pain, itching and unpleasantness. Most flies bite humans to feed during the evening and throughout night, but in some cases, can also attack in the daytime. Sand fly diseases are transmitted by the bite of infected female flies in many parts of the world. Direct impact on human health caused by biting flies is due to allergens in saliva reacting on peoples having varying degrees of sensitivity and immunity. Most peoples find the bites uncomfortable and distressing with the irritation leading to scratching and sometimes infected sores. Some of the more important sand flies transmitted diseases affecting to humans include cutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis, sand fly fever, carrions disease, pappataci fever and vesicular stomatitis virus. The best defence against getting off sand fly bites is to dress well, wearing of long sleeve, and covering of legs, ankles and feet. Keeping of exposed skin covered by clothing, is helpful when venturing into sand fly habitats, and using of a repellent that is trust worthy. Preventing of sand fly bites can be accomplished by using of permethrin-treated nets, and irritation associated with bites may be alleviated with anti-pruritic preparations, but severe reactions may require medical treatment with antihistamines. There is no effective treatment process existing to prevent these insects breeding and travelling to the nearest blood meal, but the best remedies for such vectors appear to be keeping of residences away from being located close to breeding sites. Only topical repellents and screening of buildings can provide a measure of protection to humans. Synthetic pyrethroid barrier sprays, applied around vegetation and exterior walls may substantially reduce the numbers of adult around treated premises for many weeks. One of the best treatments used is heat therapy usually from a very hot shower, as hot as a person can take it for about 5 minutes, can neutralize toxin causing the histamine response. The possible infection of sand flies with pathogen Trypanosoma species should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies of vector species in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.
Keywords
Sand Fly, Phlebotomine Flies, Vector, Leishmaniasis, Sand Fly Fever
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