American Journal of Food Science and Health
Articles Information
American Journal of Food Science and Health, Vol.1, No.1, Apr. 2015, Pub. Date: Apr. 8, 2015
Evaluation of Phytochemical Compositions and Microbial Load of Raw and Traditionally Processed Ricinus communis Seed (Ogiri)
Pages: 21-26 Views: 1510 Downloads: 727
[01] Nnenna E. Okoronkwo, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.
[02] Isabel C. Emeh, Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.
[03] Elendu C. Onwuchekwa, Department of Microbiology, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.
The phytochemical compositions and microbial load of the raw and traditionally processed Ricinus communis (castor oil – ogiri seeds) for different days were evaluated. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannin and phenols. It was observed that the alkaloid value for both the cooked and raw samples were highest for cooked with a value of 42+0.01%, and that of raw, 44±0.13; while the phenolics contents were lowest for cooked, 1.24±0.01% and raw, 1.25±0.06%. However, the phytochemical contents of the samples were observed to decrease after cooking and subsequent fermentation from day 1 to day 5 of the seeds. It was also observed that among the isolated microorganisms, Basillus substillis and Salmonella Shigella dysenteria which increased highly as fermentation was left for more days were the predominant organisms. Therefore, since Salmonella Shigella dysenteria causes food poisoning and infection, it is recommended that efforts should be made to employ good hygienic condition during processing of castor oil seed traditionally, otherwise called ogiri. More so, the ogiri should be best taken after two days of fermentation since the microbial load increases highly from the third day which renders it unfit for consumption.
Castor Oil Seed, Fermentation, Microorganisms, Phytochemicals, Deterioration
[01] Bentley, R. and Trimen,. H. (1983). Medicinal Plants. Agency and International Book Distribution, Vol 4. Delhi, Taj Offset,
[02] Fox, B. J. and Cameron, E. E. (2000). Processing and Utilization of Some Nigeria Food Condiments. Food Science p. 428
[03] Okechukwu, R. I., Ewelike N., Ukaoma A. A. and Emjula A. (2012). Changes in Nutrient Composition of Castor Oil Subjected to Solid State Natural Fermentation. Journal of Applied Bioscience, pp. 3591 – 3595
[04] Onwuliri, V. A., Attah, I. And Nwankwo, J. O. (2004). Anti-nutritional factors, essential and non-essential fatty acids composition of Ugba (Pentaclethra macrophylla) seeds at different stages of processing and fermentation. J. Biological Sci., 4: 671-675.
[05] Mbata, T. and Orji, M. U. (2008). Process optimization in the production and preservation of Ugba, a Nigerian fermented food. Int. J. Microbiol., 4: 2-6.
[06] Evans, W. C. (2003). Trease and Evan’s Pharmacognosy. 15th Ed., London, UK WB Saunders Company Ltd
[07] Harbone, J. B. (1973). Phytochemical Method, a Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. New York: Chapman and Hall.
[08] Brain, K. R. and Turner, T. D. (1975). The Practical Evaluation of Phytopharmaceutical Wright Scientechnica Bristol pp. 81 - 85
[09] Obadoni, B. O. and Ochuko, P. O. (2001). Phytochemical Studies and Comparative Efficacy of the Crude Extracts of some Homostatic Plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Global J. Pure Appl. Sci. 8b: 203 - 208.
[10] Van Burden, T. P. and Robinson W. C. (1981). Formation of Complexes between Protein and Tannin Acid. J. of Agricultural Food Chemistry. USA, pp. 77 – 99.
[11] Boham, B. A. and Kocipal-Abyazan, R. (1974). Flavonoid and Condensed Tannins from Leaves of Hawaiian Vaccincum vaticulatum and V. calycinium. Pacific Science USA, pp. 458 – 463.
[12] Joklit W. K., Willet H. P. and Amos D. B. (1993). Zinsser Microbiolgy 5th edition, California Appetorsand Long
[13] Buchanan, R. E. and Gibbons N. E. (eds) (1974). Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology. 8th Edition. Williams & Wilkins Co. Baltimore, MD 1246 p.
[14] Rollins, D. M., Temenak, J. J., Shields, P. and Joseph, S.W. (2003). Microbial Pathogenesis Laboratory Manual. 2nd Edition, Published & Available Online.
[15] Ryan, K. J. and Ray, C. J. (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology. 4th edition. New York: McGraw- Hill.
[16] Nelson, D. L. and Cox, M. M. (2005). Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, (4th ed.), New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.
[17] Harley, J. P. (2005). Microbiology Laboratory Exercise 6th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
[18] Richard, K. D. (2008). Protective Functions of Phytochemicals. J. Plant Food pp 46 – 86.
[19] Wedin, G. P. (2001). Castor Oil Beans Poisoning. American Journal of Emergency Medicine, pp. 259 – 261.
[20] Kubut, N. O, Uzuegbu, J. O., Ubbaonu, C. N. and Onyeka, E. U. (2007). Effect of Chemical Compounds Produced by Microorganims on Organoleptic Properties of Ogiri (Ricinus communis) during fermentation. Proceedings of Annual Conference of Nigeria Institute of Food Science and Technology Abuja, pp 175 – 178
[21] Odunfa H. (1985). Microbiological Study of Ogiri Fermentation, a Nigeria Indigenous Fermented Food Flavour. J. Plant Foods, pp. 155 – 163.
[22] Njoku, H. O. and Okemmadu, C. P. (1989). Biiochemical Changes during the Natural Fermentation of Castor Oil Bean for the Production of Ogiri. J. Sci Food Agric, pp. 457 – 465.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - 2017 American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.