American Journal of Food Science and Health
Articles Information
American Journal of Food Science and Health, Vol.5, No.2, Jun. 2019, Pub. Date: Apr. 26, 2019
Biological Functions and Sensory Attributes of Different Skin Colored Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L.) Varieties
Pages: 25-31 Views: 149 Downloads: 66
Authors
[01] Shahidul Islam, Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas - Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, USA.
[02] Mohammad Jalaluddin, Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas - Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, USA.
Abstract
Biological functions, sensory qualities, and nutritional potentials of bitter melons were examined using three different colored varieties. Several recipes have been tested for consumer acceptance. The total phenolic contents of the oven-dried and freeze-dried tissues from 83-89 and 85-87 mg/g are on a dry weight basis. Phenolic substances of the oven and freeze-dried materials ranged from 6.8-8.9 and 4.6-8.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent (CAE)/g dry matter. Phenolic contents of SCT and flesh ranged from 4.6-8.7, 6.8-8.9 mg/CAE dry matter, respectively. The total phenolic contents of three varieties were significantly different with the highest was White followed by Light white and Dark green. Furthermore the bitter melon flesh contents considerably higher contents of polyphenolic as compared to SCT. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from the bitter melon varieties dark green, white and light green ranged from 83-85, 85-88, 80-85, and 85-89% inhibition, respectively. Methanolic extracts of freeze-dried flesh from white and light green showed very high antimutagenic effects against benzo(a)pyrene with Salmonella TA98 (92-99% inhibition) TA100 (83-91% inhibition), but lower antimutagenicity activities against sodium azide that ranged from 46-54 and 17-32% inhibition, respectively. Fifty-nine participants from the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff were recruited to take a taste testing survey evaluating the flavor, texture, and appearance of three bitter melon recipes. The experimental groups were beef stew A, and beef stew B. The flavor ratings for beef stew A and B were significantly different (p<0.1). White bitter melon (beef stew A) had the most favorable flavor rating. Texture and appearance ratings for beef stew A and B were not statistically different. The flavor is a significant factor to consider if the bitter melon is to be prepared and served to people. Future recipe studies can be done to determine the best way to cook bitter melon so that people will desire to consume it and receive all the nutritional benefits of this food item.
Keywords
Momordica charantia, Sensory Attributes. Color, Flavor, Texture, Polyphenolics, Antioxidant, Antimutagenicity
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