American Journal of Food Science and Health
Articles Information
American Journal of Food Science and Health, Vol.5, No.2, Jun. 2019, Pub. Date: Apr. 26, 2019
Biological Functions and Sensory Attributes of Different Skin Colored Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia L.) Varieties
Pages: 25-31 Views: 1118 Downloads: 747
[01] Shahidul Islam, Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas - Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, USA.
[02] Mohammad Jalaluddin, Department of Agriculture, University of Arkansas - Pine Bluff, Pine Bluff, USA.
Biological functions, sensory qualities, and nutritional potentials of bitter melons were examined using three different colored varieties. Several recipes have been tested for consumer acceptance. The total phenolic contents of the oven-dried and freeze-dried tissues from 83-89 and 85-87 mg/g are on a dry weight basis. Phenolic substances of the oven and freeze-dried materials ranged from 6.8-8.9 and 4.6-8.7 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalent (CAE)/g dry matter. Phenolic contents of SCT and flesh ranged from 4.6-8.7, 6.8-8.9 mg/CAE dry matter, respectively. The total phenolic contents of three varieties were significantly different with the highest was White followed by Light white and Dark green. Furthermore the bitter melon flesh contents considerably higher contents of polyphenolic as compared to SCT. The antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts from the bitter melon varieties dark green, white and light green ranged from 83-85, 85-88, 80-85, and 85-89% inhibition, respectively. Methanolic extracts of freeze-dried flesh from white and light green showed very high antimutagenic effects against benzo(a)pyrene with Salmonella TA98 (92-99% inhibition) TA100 (83-91% inhibition), but lower antimutagenicity activities against sodium azide that ranged from 46-54 and 17-32% inhibition, respectively. Fifty-nine participants from the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff were recruited to take a taste testing survey evaluating the flavor, texture, and appearance of three bitter melon recipes. The experimental groups were beef stew A, and beef stew B. The flavor ratings for beef stew A and B were significantly different (p<0.1). White bitter melon (beef stew A) had the most favorable flavor rating. Texture and appearance ratings for beef stew A and B were not statistically different. The flavor is a significant factor to consider if the bitter melon is to be prepared and served to people. Future recipe studies can be done to determine the best way to cook bitter melon so that people will desire to consume it and receive all the nutritional benefits of this food item.
Momordica charantia, Sensory Attributes. Color, Flavor, Texture, Polyphenolics, Antioxidant, Antimutagenicity
[01] Anilakumar, K., Kumar, G. and Haiyaraja, N. 2015. Nutritional, pharmacological and medicinal properties of Momordica charantia. Int. J. Nutrition and Food Science. 4 (1): 75-81.
[02] Silva, M., Premathilaka, Madhuwanthi, S. and Thibbotuwawa, G. 2016. Development of fermented Momordica charantia and analysis of biochemical properties. Int J Scientific and Engineering Research. 7 (3): 362-366.
[03] Tan, S., Kha, T., Parks, S. and Roach, P. 2016. Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) bioactive compositions and health benefits. Food Reviews International. 32 (2): 181-202.
[04] Hamissou, M., Smith, A., Carter, R., and Triplett, J. 2013. Antioxidative properties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and zucchini (Cucurbita pepo). 25 (9): 641-647.
[05] Idris, R., S. Graham-Kresge, K. Jairaj, and E. Neal. Nutritional and health status of the elderly. In G. Harrison (ed.) Nutrition and Health Status in the Lower Mississippi Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The Lower Mississippi Delta Nutrition Intervention Research Consortium. 1997. P. 109-117.
[06] Islam, S. and M. Jalaluddin. Sweetpotato- a potential nutritionally rich multifunctional food crop for Arkansas: J. Arkansas Agricultural & Rural Dev, 2004. 4: 3-7.
[07] Broadhurst, CL. Balanced intakes of natural triglycerides for optimum nutrition: an evolutionary and phytochemical perspective. Med Hypotheses. 1997. 49: 247-261.
[08] Craig, W. J. Phytochemicals: guardians of our health. J. Amer. Diet. Assoc. 1997. 199-204.
[09] Timothy, J. N. New opportunities in Cucurbitaceae, In J. Janick and J. E. Simon (eds.) New Crops, Purdue University, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., N.Y. 1991. p. 538-546.
[10] Sloan, E. The new market: Foods for the not so healthy. Journal of Food Technology. 1999. 53: 254-258.
[11] Islam, S. M. Yoshimoto, S. Yahara, S. Okuno, K. Ishiguro, and O. Yamakawa. Identification and characterization of foliar polyphenolic compositions in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) genotypes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002. 50: 3718-3722.
[12] Islam, S., M. Yoshimoto, and O. Yamakawa. Distribution and physiological function of caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in sweetpotato genotypes. J. Food Sci., 2003a. 68: 111-116.
[13] Islam, S., M. Yoshimoto, K. Ishiguro, S. Okuno, and O. Yamakawa. Effect of artificial shading and temperature on radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic composition in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves. J. Amer. Soc. Hortic. Sci., 2003b. 128: 182-187.
[14] Islam, S., M. Yoshimoto, and O. Yamakawa. Bioactive Compounds in Ipomoea batatas Leaves. Acta Hortic., 2003c. 628: 693-699.
[15] Islam, S., M. Jalaluddin, G. O. Garner, M. Yoshimoto, and O. Yamakawa. Artificial shading and temperature influence on anthocyanin compositions in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Leaves. HortScience, 2005. 40: 176-180.
[16] Islam, S. Sweetpoptato (Ipomoea batatas L.) Leaf: Its potential effect on human health and nutrition. J. Food Sci. 2006. 70: R13-R21.
[17] Whitaker, T. W. 1990. Cucurbits of potential economic importance. In: D. M. Bates, R. W. Robinson, and C. Jeffrey (editors). Biology and utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Cornell Univ. Press., Ithaca. Pages 318-324.
[18] Wills, R. B. H., A. W. K. Wong, F. M. Scriven, and H. Greenfield. Nutrient composition of Chinese vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 1984. 32: 413-416.
[19] Ali, L, Khan, A. K. A, Mamun, M. I. R., Mosihuzzaman, M., Nahar, N., Alam, M. N. and Rokeya, B. Studies on Hypoglycemic effects of fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant of Momordica charantia on normal and diabetic model rats. Planta Medica. 1993. 391: 408-412.
[20] Perl, M. The biochemical basis of the hypoglycemic effects of some plant extracts. Vol. 3, In L. E. Croker and J. E. Simpson (eds.) Herbs, spices, and medicinal plants: Recent advances in botany, horticulture, and pharmacology. Oryx Press, Phoenix, AZ. 1988. p. 49-70.
[21] Morton, J. F. The balsam pear- an edible, medicinal, and toxic plant. Econ. Bot., 1967. 21: 57-68.
[22] Sofowora, E. A. “Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa.” John Wily & Sons Ltd., New York. 1982.
[23] Lotlikar, M. M. and M. R. Rajarma-Rao. Pharmacology of hypoglycaemic principle cited from the fruits of Momordica charantia L. Indian J. Pharm., 1966. 28 (5): 129-133.
[24] Zheng, Z. X. The hypoglycemic effects of crude polysaccharides extract from Momordica charantia in mice. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2005. 34: 361-363.
[25] Sathishsekar, D. 2005. Beneficial effects of Momordica charantia seeds in the treatment of STZ-induced diabetes in experimental rats. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2005. 28: 978-983.
[26] Shetty, A. K. Effect of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) on glycaemic status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 2005. 60: 109-112.
[27] Khanna, P., S. C. Jain, A. Panagariya, and V. P. Dixit. 1981. Hypoglycaemic activity of polypeptide from a plant source. Lloydia, 1981. 44: 648-655.
[28] El-Gengaihi, S., M. S. Karawya, M. A. Selim, H. M. Motawe, and N. A. Ibrahim. Chemical and biological investigation of polypeptides of Momordica and Luffa spp. Farm. Cucurbitaceae. Bull. NRC, Egypt. 1996. 21: 269-276.
[29] Lavie D., D. Willner, M. Belkin, and G. Hardy. New compounds from plants with antitumor activity. Acta Unio Internat. Contra Cancerum, 1959. 15: 177-181.
[30] Gitter S., Gallily R., Shohat B. and Lavie D., Studies on the antitumor effect of cucurbitacins. Cancer Res., 1961. 21: 516-523.
[31] Abbott, B. J., J. Leiter, L. Hartwell, M. R. Caldwell, J. L. Beal, R. E. Perdne, and S. A. Shepartz. Screening data from the cancer chemotherapy national service center screening laboratories; Plant Extracts. Cancer Res., 1966. 26, suppl. Part 2.
[32] Lin, J. Y., M. J. Hou, and Y. C. Chen. Isolation of toxic and non-toxic lectins from the bitter pear melon Momordica charantia. Toxicon, 1978. 16: 653-660.
[33] Licastro, F., C. Franceschi, L. Barbieri, and Stripe, F. Toxicity of Momordica charantia lectin and inhibitor for human normal and leukaemic lymphocytes. Virchows Arch. B. Cell Path., 1980. 33: 257-265.
[34] Spreafico F., C. Malfiore, M. Moras, L. Marmonti, S. Filippeschi, L. Barbieri, P. Perocco, and Stripe F. The immunomodulatory activity of plant proteins; Momordica charantia inhibitor and pokeweed antiviral protein. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 1983.5: 335-343.
[35] C. Kaur, H. C. Kapoor. 2002. Anti-oxidant activity and total phenolic content of some Asian vegetables. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 37: 153-161.
[36] Cai, R., N. S. Hettiarachchy, and M. Jalaluddin. High-performance liquid chromatography determination of phenolic constituents in 17 varieties of cowpeas. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003. 51: 1623-1627.
[37] Heinonen, M., A. S. Meyer, and E. N. Frankel. Antioxidant activity of berry phenolics on human low-density lipoprotein and liposome oxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1998. 46: 4107-4112.
[38] Zong, R. J., L. Morris, and M. Cantwell. Postharvest physiology and quality of bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.). Postharvest Biol. Tech. 1995. 6: 65-72.
[39] Shu-Jing Wu and Lean-Teik N. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of wild bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) in Taiwan. LWT - Food Science & Technology. 2008. 41: 323-330.
[40] Sumanth, M. and Nagarjuna, G. C. Antimutagenic activity of aqueous extract of Momordica charantia. International J. Biotech. & Molecular Biol. Res., 2010. 1: 42-46.
[41] Ames, B. N., J. McCann, and E. Yamasaki. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Res., 1975. 31: 347-364.
[42] Zong, R. J., M. Cantwell, L. Morris, and V. Rubatzky. Postharvest studies on four fruit-type Chinese vegetables. Acta Horticulturae. 1992. 318: 345-354.
[43] Satkar, P., Kulthe, A., and Chalke, P. 2013. Preparation of Bitter Gourd ready to serve beverage and effect of storage temperature on its keeping quality. The Bioscan. 8 (1): 115-117.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.