American Journal of Food Science and Health
Articles Information
American Journal of Food Science and Health, Vol.6, No.2, Jun. 2020, Pub. Date: Jun. 18, 2020
Microbial Assessment of Different Formulations of “Kunu”: An Indigenous Non-alcoholic Beverage, Vended in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Pages: 74-79 Views: 140 Downloads: 54
Authors
[01] Okafor Ugochukwu Chukwuma, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[02] Nwafor Ifeoma Precious, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[03] Obubu Maxwell, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
Abstract
Different formulations of “kunu”, a traditional non-alcoholic beverage sold in Awka metropolis were analyzed. Five (5) “kunu” samples were obtained as freshly formulated beverages from five different locations. The total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 1.7 x 106cfu/ml to 3.2 x 106cfu/ml; the total coliform count ranged from 1.1 x 106cfu/ml to 1.6 x 106cfu/ml; the total fungal count ranged from 1.3 x 106cfu/ml to 3.3 x 106cfu/ml. Of the five varieties of “kunu” samples, Tiger nut showed the highest number of bacteria with 3.2 x 106 while Wheat showed the least bacterial count with 1.7 x 106. This could be attributed to the difference in the composition of the raw materials. Also, maize variety has the highest coliform count with 1.6 x 106 while Millet has the least coliform count with 1.1 x 106. Tiger nut also has the highest fungal count with 3.3 x 106 while Maize has the least fungal count with 1.3 x 106. The microorganisms isolated included bacteria: E. coli (30%), Staphylococcus aureus (10%), Salmonella spp (10%), Pseudomonas spp (20%) and Lactobacillus spp (30%). The fungal isolates include Penicillium spp, Aspergillus spp, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Saccharomyces spp. The presence of high microbial load was an indication of poor hygiene and/or poor quality cereals and water used in the preparation. The results of this study showed that “kunu” prepared and sold in all the locations in Awka metropolis were grossly contaminated with potential pathogenic bacteria. Thus, there is a need to establish a system of monitoring of street vended “kunu” to make sure that it is safe for consumption.
Keywords
Non-Alcoholic Beverages, Microorganisms, Kunu, Awka Metropolis, Hawked Foods
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