American Journal of Food Science and Health
Articles Information
American Journal of Food Science and Health, Vol.6, No.2, Jun. 2020, Pub. Date: Jun. 18, 2020
Microbial Assessment of Different Formulations of “Kunu”: An Indigenous Non-alcoholic Beverage, Vended in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
Pages: 74-79 Views: 140 Downloads: 54
[01] Okafor Ugochukwu Chukwuma, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[02] Nwafor Ifeoma Precious, Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Faculty of Biosciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
[03] Obubu Maxwell, Department of Statistics, Faculty of Physical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.
Different formulations of “kunu”, a traditional non-alcoholic beverage sold in Awka metropolis were analyzed. Five (5) “kunu” samples were obtained as freshly formulated beverages from five different locations. The total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 1.7 x 106cfu/ml to 3.2 x 106cfu/ml; the total coliform count ranged from 1.1 x 106cfu/ml to 1.6 x 106cfu/ml; the total fungal count ranged from 1.3 x 106cfu/ml to 3.3 x 106cfu/ml. Of the five varieties of “kunu” samples, Tiger nut showed the highest number of bacteria with 3.2 x 106 while Wheat showed the least bacterial count with 1.7 x 106. This could be attributed to the difference in the composition of the raw materials. Also, maize variety has the highest coliform count with 1.6 x 106 while Millet has the least coliform count with 1.1 x 106. Tiger nut also has the highest fungal count with 3.3 x 106 while Maize has the least fungal count with 1.3 x 106. The microorganisms isolated included bacteria: E. coli (30%), Staphylococcus aureus (10%), Salmonella spp (10%), Pseudomonas spp (20%) and Lactobacillus spp (30%). The fungal isolates include Penicillium spp, Aspergillus spp, Candida albicans, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Saccharomyces spp. The presence of high microbial load was an indication of poor hygiene and/or poor quality cereals and water used in the preparation. The results of this study showed that “kunu” prepared and sold in all the locations in Awka metropolis were grossly contaminated with potential pathogenic bacteria. Thus, there is a need to establish a system of monitoring of street vended “kunu” to make sure that it is safe for consumption.
Non-Alcoholic Beverages, Microorganisms, Kunu, Awka Metropolis, Hawked Foods
[01] Umaru, G. A., Tukur, I. S., Akensire, U. A., Adamu, Z., Bello, O. A., Shawulu, A. H. B., Sunkani, J. B., Adamu, S. G. and Adamu, N. B. (2014). Micro flora of of “kunu”-zaki and sobo drinks in relation to public health in Jalingo metropolis, North-Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Food Research 1, 16-21.
[02] Adelekan, A. O., Alamu, A. E., Arisa, N. U., Adebayo, Y. O. and Dosa, A. S. (2013). Nutritional, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Malted Soy “kunu”-Zaki: An Improved Traditional Beverage. Advances in Microbiology 3, 389-397.
[03] Amusa, NA; Odunbaku, OA (2009). Microbiological and Nutritional Quality of Hawked “kunu” (A Sorghum Based Non-Alcoholic Beverage) Widely Consumed in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (1): 20-25.
[04] Amusa, NA; Ashaye, OA (2009). Effects of processing on nutritional, microbiological and sensory properties of “kunu” (A sorghum based non-alcoholic beverage) widely consumed in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 8 (3): 288-292.
[05] Oranusi, SU; Umoh, VJ; Kwaga, JKP (2003). Hazards and Critical Control Points of “kunu”n-zaki, a Non-Alcoholic Beverage in Northern Nigeria. Food Microbiology; 20: 127-132.
[06] Essien CE, Monago C, Edor E. (2009). Evaluation of the nutritional and microbiological quality of “kunu” (A cereal based non-alcoholic beverage) in Rivers State, Nigeria. The Internet Journal of Nutrition and Wellness. 10 (2): 77-89.
[07] Gaffa, T., I. A. Jideani and I. Nkama (2002). Traditional productional, Consumption and storage of “kunu” a non alcoholic cereal bevereage. Plant food for human consumption. African Journal of food Science 57 (1): 73-81.
[08] Amusa, NA; Ashaye, OA; Aiyegbayo, AA; Oladapo, MO; Oni, MO; and Afolabi, OO (2005). Microbiological and nutritional quality of hawked sorrel drinks (Soborodo) (the Nigerian locally brewed soft drinks) widely consumed and notable drinks in Nigeria. Int. J. Food Agric. Environ. 3: 47-50.
[09] Ayo JA, Ikuomola DS, Esan YO, Onuoha OG, Ayo VA, Ekele V (2010). Effect of Added defatted benniseed on the quality of acha based biscuit. Continental J. Food Sci. Technol. 4: 7-13.
[10] Bibek, R (2001). Fundamental Food Microbiology, 2nd Edition. The CRC Press ltd, Washington DC. 56-90.
[11] Omemu, AM; Aderoju, ST (2008). Food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in the city of Abeokuta, Nigeria. Food Control. 19: 396–402.
[12] Sperber, WH (2003). Food safety-future challenges. Food Contr. 14: 73-74.
[13] Tamine, A. Y. and R. K. Robinson (1989). Yoghurt Science and Technology. 1st Edn., Pergamon Press, New York, pp: 431.
[14] Nwachukwu, N. C., F. A. Orji and J. I. Amaike (2009). Isolation and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes from “kunu”, a locally produced beaverage marketed in different markets in Abia State of Nigeria. Aust. J. Basic Applied Sci. 3: 4432-4436.
[15] Cheesbrough M. (2010). District laboratory practice in tropical countries, part 2, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. 62-118.
[16] Campbell CK, Johnson EM, Warnock DW. Identification of pathogenic fungi, 2nd Edition. Willey Publishers. 2013; 11-16 & 263-304.
[17] Cheesbrough, M (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 52-70.
[18] Onourah SI, Adeslyun AA, Adeleke JO (1987). Survival and multiplication of Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli in Nigerian cereal drink (“kunu”n-zaki): effects of spices, pH and temperature. J. Food Agric. 1: 31-34.
[19] Odunfa, S. A. and Adeyele, S. (1985). Microbiological changes during the traditional production of ogi-baba; a West African fermented sorghum gruel. Journal of Cereal Science. 3: 173-180.
[20] Adeyemi, I. A., S. Umar (1994). Effect of method of manufacture on the quantity characteristics of “kunu” a millet based beverage. Nigeria food Journal. 12: 34-40.
[21] Odunfa, S. A. (1988) African fermented foods. In: Microbiology of Fermented Foods. Vol. 2. (Second edition), Wood, B. J. B. (ed.). Elsevier Applied Science, London, 155-191.
[22] Osuntogun, B. and O. O. Aboaba (2004). Microbiological and physico-chemical evaluation of some non-alcoholic beverages. Pak. J. Nutr., 3: 188-192.
[23] Osuntogun B, Aboabo OO. (2006). Microbiological and physiochemical evaluation of some non-alcoholic beverages. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition.; 2 (3): 21-33.
[24] Obasi C. J, Obasi I., Okafor U. C, Umeh S. O and Okeke O. (2018). Bacteriological Examination of Sorrel Beverage (Zobo) Drinks Sold in Awka Metropolis. Bioscience and Bioengineering, 4 (2): 14-17.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.