Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Articles Information
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol.5, No.3, Sep. 2019, Pub. Date: Jun. 4, 2019
Teachers’ Teaching Styles and Motivational Strategies: It’s Impact on the Academic Performance of Students in Ghana
Pages: 232-243 Views: 248 Downloads: 213
[01] Emilyn Ofosu-Amaah, Department of Education, Komenda College of Education, Komenda, Ghana.
[02] Patience Farkor Kpeyibor, Department of Education, Mount Mary College of Education, Somanya, Ghana.
[03] Anthony Boakye, Department of Education, Wiawso College of Education, Sefwi Wiawso, Ghana.
[04] Charles Redeemer Semordey, Department of Education, Mount Mary College of Education, Somanya, Ghana.
[05] Aaron Ato-Davies, Department of Education, Presbyterian College of Education, Akropong Akuapem.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the teaching styles and motivational strategies of public primary school teachers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. The design for this study was descriptive. The population for this study included all public primary school trained teachers and pupils in the Central Region of Ghana. Two hundred and fifty-five teachers and eighty-seven pupils were sampled from basic schools in Cape Coast in the central region of Ghana. Purposive and stratified random sampling technique were used to select the district and respondents for the study. Data collection was facilitated through the administration of questionnaire. Both teachers and pupils were made to respond twenty-seven (27) close-ended and four open-ended questionnaire items for this study. The data was edited, coded and analysed into percentages with interpretations. The data collected was first grouped and coded using numerical values (coded manual) of the Test Analytics for Surveys (TAfS), SPSS Predictive Analytic Software Version 18.0 to form each of the main variables that are: trained teachers’ teaching styles, trained teachers’ motivational strategies and pupils’ academic performance. The Pearson Product Moment correlation was used to examined the assume association between the main variables. The study revealed that the various teaching styles and motivational strategies used by trained teachers makes it easy for them to help boost pupils’ academic performance in the various public schools. It was recommended that teachers use caring voice when teaching in order to make learning interesting for pupils. It was also recommended that trained teachers ensure they engage pupils more during the teaching process (learner-centred).
Public, Basic, School, Teachers, Teaching Styles, Motivation, Strategies, Ghana
[01] Michael Metzler, W. M. (2017). Instructional Models in Physical Education. USA, Routledge Publishers.
[02] Connolly, M. R., Lee, Y. G., & Savoy, J. N. (2018). The Effects of Doctoral Teaching Development on Early-Career STEM Scholars' College Teaching Self-efficacy. CBE life sciences education, 17 (1), ar14. doi: 10.1187/cbe.17-02-0039.
[03] Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
[04] Evans, C. (2004). Exploring the relationship between cognitive style and teaching style. Educational Psychology, 24 (4), 509-530.
[05] Smiths, S. & Conti, G. (2016). The Language Teacher Toolkit. Amazon.
[06] Arthurs, J. B. (2007). A juggling act in the classroom: Managing different learning styles. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 2, 2-7.
[07] Ainlei, P. (2008). Styles of engagement with learning: Multidimensional assessment of theirrelationship with strategy use and school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85 (3), 395-405.
[08] Ofoegbu, F. I. (2008). Teacher motivation: A factor for classroom effectivenessand school improvement in Nigeria. Retrieved August 15, 2015, from
[09] Battistich, V., Schaps, E., & Wilson, N. (2004). Effects of an elementary school interventionon students’ “connectedness” to school and social adjustment during middle school. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 24 (3), 243-262.
[10] Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74 (7), 262-273.
[11] Berry, D., & O’Connor, E. (2009). Behavioural risk, teacher-child relationships, and social skilldevelopment across middle childhood: A child – byenvironment analysis of change. Journal of Applied DevelopmentalPsychology, 31 (1), 1-14.
[12] Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (2009). The teacher-child relationship and early school adjustment. Journal of School Psychology, 55 (3), 61-79.
[13] Daniels, D. H., & Perry, K. E. (2009). Learner-centred according to children. Theory into Practice, 42 (2), 102-108.
[14] Sharra, S. (2010). Towards highly qualified primary school teachers: The case in Malawi. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from /blogging/africanaffairs/towards-highlyqualified-primaryschoolteachers casemalawi.
[15] Sulaiman, T. (2011). An analysis of teachingstyles in primary and secondary school teachers based on the theory of multiple intelligences. Journal of Social Sciences, 7 (3), 428-435.
[16] Saani, A.-J. (2012). Influence of school organisational culture on teachers’ commitment to the teaching profession in general. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast.
[17] Elsevier, A. R. (2012). Effects of teaching and learning styles on students’ reflection levels for ubiquitous learning. Retrieved August 28, 2012, from http://lcell.bnu. edu. cn/cankaowenxian /foreign/ Effect_of teaching_and learning_styles_on_students_reflection_levels_for_ubiquitous_learning.
[18] UNICEF (2000). Defining quality in education. WorkingPaper Series, Education Section and Programme Division. Retrieved January 28, 2012, from
[19] Ahmethan, B. N. (2016). Correlation between teaching styles of candidate music teachers and mentor music teachers. Educational Research and Reviews 11 (13), 1228-1235.
[20] Tomlinson, C. A. (2005, April). Differentiated instruction as way to achieve equity and excellence in today’s schools. Building inclusive schools: A search for solutions. Conference Report Canadian Teachers’ Federation Conference, Ottawa, Ontario.
[21] Kulinna, P. H., & Cothran, D. J. (2003). Physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of various teaching styles. Learning and Instruction, 31 (6), 597-609.
[22] Almalak, A. S. A. O (2017). Enhancing classroom management in cycle 2 in Fujairah through the implementation of effective teaching practices and strategies. Published Master of Education in TESOL, British University in Dubai.
[23] Brookfield, S. (1990). The skilful teacher: On technique, trust, and responsiveness in the classroom. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.
[24] Kulinna, P. H., Cothran, D. J., & Zhu, W. (2000). Teachers’ experiences with and perceptions of Mosston's Spectrum: How do they compare with students’? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.
[25] Masse, M. H., & Popovich, M. N. (2006). He said, she said: A national study of gender differences in the teaching of writing. The Coaching Corner Online Edition, 3 (1). Retrieved January 5, 2007, from http://jdwritingctr.
[26] Chang, Y. C. (2010). Students’ perceptions of teaching styles and use of learning strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
[27] Barnes, R., & Aguerrebere, J. (2006, November 15). Sidetracking the debate on teacher quality. Education Week, 26 (12), 34-44.
[28] Kilpatrick, J., Swafford, J., & Findell, B. (Eds.). (2009). Adding it up: Helping children learn mathematics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, Mathematics Learning Study Committee, Center for Education.
[29] Ginsburg, A., Leinwand, S., & Decker, K. (2009). Informing Grades 1–6 standards development: What can be learned from high-performing Hong Kong, Korea, and Singapore? Washington DC: American Institutes for Research.
[30] Beyond Crossroads. (2006). Effective mathematics instruction. New York, NY: Sage.
[31] Davis-Langston, C. (2012). Exploring relationships among teaching styles, teachers’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and students’ mathematics achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA.
[32] Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., & Donovan, S. S. (1999). Effects of small-group learning on undergraduates in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology: A Meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 69 (1), 21–51.
[33] Guthrie, J. M. (2009). The effect of the use of Christian-published science textbooks on the ACT science reasoning subtest scores of Midwest christian high schools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA.
[34] Amineh, J. R., & Asl, D. H. (2015). Review of Constructivism and Social Constructivism. Journal of Social Sciences, Literature and Languages, 1 (1) 9-16.
[35] Jarvis, P. (2004). Adult education and lifelong learning: Theory and practice. London, United Kingdom: Routledge Falmer.
[36] Akbari, R., Kiany, G. R., Naeeni, M. I., & Allvar, N. K. (2009). Teachers’ teaching styles, sense of efficacy and reflectivity as correlates with students’ achievement outcomes. System, 35 (2), 192-207.
[37] Brown, B. L. (2003). Teaching style vs. learning style: Myths and realities. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University.
[38] Evans, C., Harkins, M., & Young, J. (2008). Exploring teaching styles and cognitive styles: Evidence from school teachers in Canada. North American Journal of Psychology, 10 (3), 567-582.
[39] Franzoni, A. L., & Assar, S. (2009). Student learning styles adaptation method based on teaching strategies and electronic media. Educational Technology and Society, 12 (4), 15-29.
[40] Nielson, T. (2007, July). Implementation of learning styles in adult teaching: A suggestion for an approach. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the European Learning Styles Information Network (pp. 91-101). Dublin, Ireland: Trinity College.
[41] Conti, G. J., & Wellborn, R. B. (2009). Teaching-learning styles and the adult learner. Lifelong Learning, 13 (8), 20-24.
[42] Evans, C., Harkins, M., & Young, J. (2008). Exploring teaching styles and cognitive styles: Evidence from school teachers in Canada. North American Journal of Psychology, 10 (3), 567-582.
[43] Opdenakker, M. C., & Van Damme, J. (2006). Teacher characteristics and teaching styles as effectiveness enhancing factors of classroom practice. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22 (1), 1-21.
[44] Gregorc, A. F. (2009). Learning/teaching styles: Their nature and effects. In J. W. Keefe (Ed.), Student learning styles: Diagnosing and prescribing programs, (pp. 19-26). Reston.
[45] Grasha, A. F. (1996). Teaching with style. Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance Publishers VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.
[46] Grasha, A. F. (2002). Teaching with style: A practical guide to enhancing learning by understanding teaching and learning styles. San Bernardino, CA: Alliance.
[47] Goldhaber, D. (2002). The mystery of good teaching: Surveying the evidence on student achievement and teachers’ characteristics. Education Next, 2 (1), 50-55.
[48] Davis, N. E. (2010). Global interdisciplinary research into the diffusion of information technology innovations in education. In A. McDougall, J. Murnane, J. Jones, & N. Reynolds (Eds.), Researching I. T. in education: Theory, practice and future directions (pp. 142-149). London, United Kingdom: Routledge.
[49] Davis-Langston, C. (2012). Exploring relationships among teaching styles, teachers’ perceptions of their self-efficacy and students’ mathematics achievement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Liberty University, Lynchburg, VA.
[50] Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44 (3), 159-175.
[51] Perry, N. E., Turner, J. C., & Meyer, D. K. (2006). Classrooms as contexts for motivating learning. In P. Alexander & P. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology, (pp. 327-348). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
[52] Schunk, D. (1989). Self-efficacy and cognitive skill learning. In C. Ames & R. Ames (Eds.), Research on motivation in education: Vol. 3, Goals and cognitions (pp. 13-44). San Diego: Academic Press.
[53] Wigfield, A. & Eccles, J. (1992). The development of achievement task values: A theoretical analysis. Developmental Review, 12, 265-310.
[54] Deci, E. (1992). The relation of interest to the motivation of behaviour: A self-determination theory perspective. In K. A. Renninger, S. Hidi, & A. Krapp (Eds.), The role of interest in learning and development (pp. 43-70). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
[55] Pintrinch, P., & Schunk, D. (1996). Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Merrill.
[56] Schunk, D. (1991). Self-efficacy and academic motivation. Educational Psychology, 26 (3), 207-231.
[57] Rotter, J. (1966). Generalised expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80, 1-11.
[58] Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[59] Pajares, F. & Johnson, M. (1994). Confidence and competence in writing: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and apprehension. Research in the Teaching of English, 28 (3), 313-331.
[60] Pajares, F. (2003). Self-efficacy beliefs, motivation, and achievement in writing: a review of the literature. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 19, 139-158.
[61] Meier, S., McCarthy, P., & Schmeck, R. (1984). Validity of self-efficacy as a predictor of writing performance. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8, 107-120.
[62] Daly, J., & Miller, M. (1975). Further studies on writing apprehension: SAT scores, success expectations, willingness to take advanced courses, and sex differences. Research in the Teaching of English, 9 (3), 250-256.
[63] Somuncuoglu, Y., & Yildirim, A. (2001). Relationship between achievement goal orientations and use of learning strategies. The Journal of Educational Research, 92 (5), 267-277.
[64] Groth, B. (2001). Brit trips – Midway Hotel: A simulated negotiation. Business Communication Quarterly, 64, 63-78.
[65] Mayer, R. (1992). Guiding students’ cognitive processing of scientific information in text. In M. Pressley, K. Harris, & J. Guthrie, (Eds.). Promoting academic competence and literacy in school (pp. 243-258). San Diego: Academic Press.
[66] Pintrich, P., Smith, D., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. (1991). A manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
[67] Zimmerman, B. (2000). Attaining self-regulation: A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Self-regulation: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 13-39). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
[68] Schunk, D. (2005). Self-regulated learning: The educational legacy of Paul R. Pintrich. Educational Psychologist, 40 (2), 85-94.
[69] Dunn, R., Dunn, K., & Price, G. (1989). Learning style inventory. Lawrence, KS: Price Systems, Inc.
[70] Slavin, R. (1990). Research on cooperative learning: consensus and controversy. Educational Leadership, 47 (4), 52-54.
[71] Ryan, A., & Pintrich, P., (1998). Achievement and social motivational influences on help seeking in the classroom. In S. A. Karabenick (Ed.), Strategic help seeking: Implications for learning and teaching (pp. 117-139). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[72] Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
[73] Hanafin, M. (2005). Guidelines for probationary teachers in primary schools. Retrieved August 26, 2012, from 1_No 21_Special_Issue_December_2011/24.pdf
[74] Awuni, A. (2012, July 17). Dutch volunteers donate furniture to Kobilmagu School. The Finder (No. 223), p. 10.
[75] Gadagbui, G. Y. (2012). Inclusive education project, University of Education, Winneba. Retrieved August 28, 2012, from http://www.natcomreport. com/ghana/livre/inclusive-education.pdf
[76] Mantei, J., & Kervin, L. (2012). Looking for clarity amongst the challenges faced by teachers as they consider the role of ICT in classroom literacy learning experiences. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from au/bitstream/2123/2335/1/Future Directions_Ch10.pdf
[77] Anstey, M., & Bull, G. (2012). Teaching and learning multiliteracies: Changing times, changing literacies. Kensington Gardens: International Reading Association and AustralianLiteracy Educators’ Association.
[78] Vercillo, K. (2012). Why it is important for teachers to understand child development stages. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from http:// kathrynvercillo. WhyTeachersMust Understand Child Development
[79] Stitt-Gohdes, W. L. (2001). Business education students' preferred learning styles and their teachers' preferred instructional styles: Do they match? Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 43 (3), 137-151.
[80] Henson, K. T. (2004). Constructivist methods for teaching in diverse middle-level classrooms. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
[81] Hou, C. S. (2007). A study on the relationship between teacher-student style match or mismatch and English learning achievements. Unpublished master’s thesis, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan.
[82] Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., Razavieh, A., & Sorensen, C. (2006). Introduction to research in education (7th ed.). New York: Thompson/Wadsworth.
[83] Farkas, R. D. (2003). Effects of traditional versus learning-styles instructional methods on middle school students. The Journal of Educational Research, 97 (1), 42-51.
[84] Curtin, E. (2005). Instructional styles used by regular classroom teachers while teaching recently mainstreamed ESL students: Six urban middle school teachers in Texas share their experiences and perceptions. Multicultural Education, 12 (4), 36-42.
[85] Chang, W. (2005). The impact of constructivist teaching on students' perceptions of teaching and learning. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, New Orleans, LA.
[86] Chang, Y. C. (2010). Students’ perceptions of teaching styles and use of learning strategies. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.