Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Articles Information
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol.6, No.3, Sep. 2020, Pub. Date: Jun. 29, 2020
The Shift in Gender Roles and Household Wellbeing in Rural and Urban Ghana
Pages: 138-146 Views: 139 Downloads: 54
Authors
[01] Bernice Wadei, Department of Geography and Rural Development, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
[02] Kwame Ansong Wadei, School of Management and Economics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.
Abstract
Gender roles and relations play a critical part in development processes. However, gender stereotyping over the years generated the conventional gender division of labour which gave men exclusive rights over productive resources often to the disadvantage of women. Presently, however, gender roles have changed and are still changing, giving way to a shift in gender roles; a movement away from gender stereotyping to a more equal and all-inclusive society. Wellbeing is a multidimensional concept that encompasses many aspects of human lives. Tracking the improvement in human wellbeing over time is critical to monitoring the progress of development programmes. The current change in gender roles is perceived to have both positive and negative ramifications on people’s general wellbeing. This paper therefore sought to investigate how the shift in gender roles has affected household wellbeing in rural and urban spaces in Ghana. The mixed-method approach was used with questionnaire administration to 400 households, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Wellbeing is operationalised in this paper to include material conditions (income, job earnings, and housing), quality of life (health status, educational skills, social connections, personal security), happiness (expression of joy and satisfaction) and self-worth (the feeling of being useful and appreciated). The quality of life, happiness, self-worth, and material conditions of households were subsequently found to have improved due to equal access to productive resources by both men and women. Development players and policymakers must therefore seek to economically empower both men and women to have equal access to productive resources and make improved household wellbeing sustainable.
Keywords
Shift in Gender Roles, Wellbeing, Happiness, Gender Roles, Stereotyping
References
[01] Oláh, L. S., Richter, R. and Kotowska, E. I., (2014). State-of-the-Art Report; The new roles of men and women and implications for families and societies, Families and Societies, Working Paper Series, Vol. 11.
[02] European Union, (2017). Reducing Institutional and Cultural Barriers for Young Women’s Entrepreneurship, EU Delegation to Nigeria and ECOWAS June 15, 2017.
[03] Stevens, C., (2010). Are women the key to sustainable development. Sustainable development insights, 3, pp. 1-8.
[04] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, (2012). Poverty reduction and Pro-Poor Growth: The Role of Empowerment, Sec 2; Women’s economic empowerment, OECD 2012.
[05] Buvinic, M., Furst-Nichols, R., And Pryor, C. E., (2013). A Roadmap for Promoting Women’s Economic Empowerment, United Nations Foundation and ExxonMobil Foundation.
[06] Sultan, M. and Hasan, B., (2014). Migration, Conceptions of Masculinity and Femininity and Changing Gender Norms, KNOMAD International Conference on Internal Migration and Urbanization, Dhaka, April 30-May 1, 2014.
[07] Ndlovu, S. and Mutale, S. B., (2013). Emerging trends in women’s participation in politics in Africa. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 3 (11), pp. 72-79.
[08] Jayachandran, S., (2014). The Roots of Gender Inequality in Developing Countries, Annual Review of Economics.
[09] Singhal, R., (2003). Women, Gender and Development: The Evolution of Theories and Practice, Psychology and Developing Societies, Vol. 15 (2) pp 165-185, Sage Publications, New Delhi/Thousand Oaks/London.
[10] Addo, M-A., (2012). Advancing Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women: Ghana’s Experience, UNDCF Vienna Policy Dialogue.
[11] Paci, P., (2002). Gender in transition. Washington, DC: World Bank.
[12] International Recovery Platform, (2010). Guidance Notes on Recovery; Livelihood, International Recovery Platform Secretariat, Chuo-ku, Japan.
[13] Gomez, B. and Jones III, J. P. eds., (2010). Research methods in geography: A critical introduction (Vol. 6). John Wiley & Sons.
[14] Agassi, B. J., (1989). Theories of Gender Equality: Lessons from the Israeli Kibbutz, Gender &Society, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp 160-186.
[15] United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, (2000). Gender Equality and Equity, A summary review of UNESCO's accomplishments since the Fourth World Conference on Women (Beijing 1995).
[16] Chen, M. A., Vanek, J. and Carr, M., (2004). Mainstreaming informal employment and gender in poverty reduction: A handbook for policy-makers and other stakeholders. Commonwealth Secretariat.
[17] Whelehan, I. and Pilcher, J., (2004). Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies, SAGE Publications Inc, Thousand Oaks, California.
[18] United States Agency for International Development, (2015). Gender and extreme poverty, Getting to Zero: A USAID discussion series.
[19] McGillivray, M. and Clarke, M., (2006). Understanding human well-being. United Nations University Press.
[20] Lee, S. J. and Kim, Y., (2015). Searching for the meaning of community well-being, Community Well-Being and Community Development (pp. 9-23). Springer International Publishing.
[21] Dodge, R., Daly, A., Huyton, J., & Sanders, L. (2012). The challenge of defining wellbeing. International Journal of Wellbeing, 2 (3), 222-235. doi: 10.5502/ijw.v2i3.4.
[22] Campbell, S. M., (2016). The Concept of Wellbeing, The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Well-Being (2016).
[23] Galloway, S., (2006). Quality of Life and Well-being: Measuring the Benefits of Culture and Sport: Literature Review and Thinkpiece, Scottish Executive Education Department, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh.
[24] McAllister, F., (2005). Wellbeing concepts and challenges. Sustainable Development Research Network, pp. 1-22.
[25] White, S. C., (2008), April. But what is well-being? A framework for analysis in social and development policy and practice. In Conference on regeneration and wellbeing: research into practice, University of Bradford (Vol. 2425).
[26] Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, (2013). The OECD Better Life Initiative: Measuring, well-being and progress, OECD Statistics Directorate Paris.
[27] Diener, E., Scollon, N. C. and Lucas, E. R., (2003). The evolving concept of subjective well-being: the multifaceted nature of happiness, Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology, vol. 15, pp 187–219 Elsevier Science B. V.
[28] Brown, H. and Roberts, J., (2014). Gender role identity, breadwinner status and psychological well-being in the household, Working Paper, Sheffield Economics Research Paper (201400). Department of Economics, University of Sheffield.
[29] Tietcheu, B., (2006). Being Women and Men in Africa Today: Approaching Gender Roles in Changing African Societies. Student World, 1, pp. 116-124.
[30] Joro, V., (2016). Gender roles and domestic violence: narrative analysis of social construction of gender in Uganda, Department of Social Sciences and Philosophy, University of Jyväskylä, Winter 2016.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.