Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Articles Information
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol.6, No.1, Mar. 2020, Pub. Date: Jan. 14, 2020
The Second Industrial Revolution has Brought Modern Social and Economic Developments
Pages: 1-14 Views: 227 Downloads: 107
Authors
[01] Haradhan Kumar Mohajan, Department of Mathematics, Premier University, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
Abstract
The American Industrial Revolution (IR) is considered as the Second IR (IR2) which creates rural to an urban society. Great inventions during the IR2 are electricity, internal combustion engine, the chemical industries, petroleum and other chemicals, alloys, electrical communication technologies, and running water with indoor plumbing. The development of steel and oil refining has affected US industry. Transportation and communications technology has changed business practices and daily life style of many people. Inventions of medicine and medical instruments have reduced the rates of infections and death from many diseases and public health has improved greatly. Global political, economic, and social systems have widely changed very rapidly. Between 1820 and 1920 about 33 million people, mainly labors, have migrated to the USA for seeking greater economic opportunity and cities become overcrowded. Low wage, dangerous working conditions, long working hours, child labor, discrimination in wages, etc. have created labor dissatisfaction. Moreover jobless and wage cut of labors railroad strike has broke out in many cities of the USA. An attempt has taken in this study to discuss aspects of the IR2.
Keywords
Second Industrial Revolution, Innovation and Invention, Electricity, Steel, Oil and Petroleum, Economic Development, Railroad Strike
References
[01] Alef, D. (2009). Jay Gould: Ruthless Railroad Tycoon (Titans of Fortune). Titans of Fortune Publishing.
[02] Alexander, J. G. (2009). Daily Life in Immigrant America, 1870–1920: How the Second Great Wave of Immigrants Made Their Way in America. 2nd Ed., Ivan R. Dee, Chicago.
[03] Allen, F., Capie, F., Fohlin, C., Miyajima, H., Sylla, R., Wood, G., & Yafeh, Y. (2010). How Important Historically were Financial Systems for Growth in the UK, US, Germany, and Japan? World Bank Project on Financial Structure.
[04] Anderson, J. D. (2004). Inventing Flight: The Wright Brothers and their Predecessors. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.
[05] Astin H., & Hirsch, W. (1978). The Higher Education of Women: Essays in Honor of Rosemary Park. New York: Praeger.
[06] Atkeson, A., & Kehoe, P. J. (2001). The Transition to a New Economy after the Second Industrial Revolution. Working Paper No. 606. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Research Department.
[07] Bacon, K. (2007). The Dark Side of the Gilded Age. The Atlantic, USA.
[08] Bak, R. (2003). Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire. pp. 54–63, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
[09] Bandiera, O., Mohnen, M., Rasul, I., & Viarengo, M. (2018). Nation-Building through Compulsory Schooling during the Age of Mass Migration. The Economic Journal, 129 (617), 62–109.
[10] Bijker, W. E., Hughes, T. P., & Pinch, T. F. (1989). The Social Construction of Technological Systems: New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology. MIT Press, Cambridge.
[11] Bostaph, S. (2015). Andrew Carnegie: An Economic Biography. Lexington Books, Lanham, MD.
[12] Bowen, A., Duffy, C., & Fankhauser, S. (2016). Green Growth and the New Industrial Revolution. Policy Brief Paper, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. Grantham Foundation, London School of Economics and Political Science.
[13] Boyer, E. L. (1983). High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America. New York: Harper and Row.
[14] Brandon, R. (1977). Singer and the Sewing Machine: A Capitalist Romance. Kodansha International, New York.
[15] Bringhurst, B. (1979). Antitrust and the Oil Monopoly: The Standard Oil Cases, 1890–1911. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
[16] Buckman, D. L. (1907). Old Steamboat Days on the Hudson River. The New York: The Grafton Press.
[17] Burger, P. (2007). Charles Fenerty and his Paper Invention. Toronto: Peter Burger.
[18] Burhop, C. (2009). Pharmaceutical Research in Wilhelmine Germany: The Case of E. Merck. Business History Review, 83 (3), 475–503.
[19] Carter, S. B., Gartner, S. S., Haines, M. R., Olmstead, A. L., Sutch, R., & Wright, G. (Eds.) (2006). Historical Statistics of the United States: Earliest Times to the Present. Millennial Edition, Volume 5, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[20] Chandler, A. D. (1981). The Railroads, the Nation’s First Big Business: Source and Readings. Ayer Company Publishers, Inc., New York.
[21] Chandler, A. D. (1993). The Visible Hand: The Management Revolution in American Business. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
[22] Chin, A., Juhn, C., & Thompson, P. (2004). Technical Change and the Wage Structure during the Second Industrial Revolution: Evidence from the Merchant Marine, 1865–1912. Discussion Paper No. 1285. The Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), Germany.
[23] Clerk, D. (1897). Gas and Oil Engines. London: Longman Green & Co.
[24] Cook, A., & Ehrlich, I. (2018). Was Higher Education a Major Channel through which the US Became an Economic Superpower in the 20th Century? IZA DP No. 11648. IZA–Institute of Labor Economics.
[25] Crawford, J. (1989). Bilingual Education: History, Politics, Theory, and Practice. Los Angeles: Bilingual Educational Services, Inc.
[26] Cronin, J. E. (1987). Strikes and Power in Britain, 1870–1920. International Review of Social History, 32 (2), 144–167.
[27] Cummins, C. L. Jr. (1993). Diesel’s Engine: Volume 1: From Conception to 1918. Wilsonville, OR: Carnot Press.
[28] Dalzell, F. (2009). Engineering Invention: Frank J. Sprague and the US Electrical Industry, 1880–1900. MIT Press.
[29] Davis, R. E. G. (1964). A History of the World’s Airlines. Oxford University Press.
[30] Dilts, J. D. (1996). The Great Road: The Building of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1828–1853. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
[31] Dubofsky, M., & Dulles, F. R. (2010). Labor in America: A History. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
[32] Eckel, P. D., & King, J. E. (2004). An Overview of Higher Education in the United States: Diversity, Access, and the Role of the Marketplace. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
[33] Engels, F. (1969). Anti-Dühring. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
[34] Federal Reserve System (1959). All-Bank Statistics: United States, 1896–1955. Washington, DC: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
[35] Filippelli, R. L. (1990). Labor Conflict in the United States: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Co.
[36] Fink, L. (1988). The New Labor History and the Powers of Historical Pessimism: Consensus, Hegemony, and the Case of the Knights of Labor. Journal of American History, 75 (1), 115–136.
[37] Fischler, G., & Schneider, S. (1992). Fountain Pens and Pencils. New York: Shiffer Publishing.
[38] Fogel, R. W. (1964). Railroads and American Economic Growth: Essays in Econometric History. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins Press.
[39] Foner, P. S. (1978). History of the Labor Movement in the United States. Volume 1: From Colonial Times to the Founding of the American Federation of Labor. New York: International Publishers.
[40] Gangopadhyay, P., Ebersole, D., Spencer, R., Greuther, M., & Casey, B. (2009). NEH Landmarks of American History. Workshop for School Teachers on ‘America’s Industrial Revolution’ at The Henry Ford.
[41] Goldin, C., & Katz, L. F. (1997). Why the United States Led in Education: Lessons from Secondary School Expansion, 1910 to 1940. NBER Working Paper No. 6144. National Bureau of Economic Review.
[42] Gordon, R. J. (2000). Does the “New Economy” Measure up to the Great Inventions of the Past? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (2), 49–74.
[43] Gordon, R. J. (2012). Is US Economic Growth Over? Faltering Innovation Confronts the Six Headwinds. The Centre for Economic Policy Research, Policy Insight No. 63. North-western University, London.
[44] Gray, E. (1991). The Devil’s Device: Robert Whitehead and the History of the Torpedo. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press.
[45] Haber, L. F. (1958). The Chemical Industry during the Nineteenth Century. Clarendon Press, Oxford.
[46] Hadland, T., & Lessing, H.-E. (2014). Bicycle Design, an Illustrated History. MIT Press.
[47] Halacy, D. S. (1970). Charles Babbage, Father of the Computer. Crowell-Collier Press, New York.
[48] Hardy, A. (1988). Diagnosis, Death, Diet: The Case of London, 1750–1909. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 18 (3), 387–401.
[49] Hatton, T. J., & Williamson, J. G. (2005). Global Migration and the World Economy: Two Centuries of Policy and Performance. Cambridge: MIT Press.
[50] Hendrickson, W. B. (1956). The Three Lives of Frank H. Hall. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, 49 (3), 271–294.
[51] Herring, P. (2000). Ultimate Train. London: Dorling Kindersley.
[52] Holme, I. (2006). Sir William Henry Perkin: A Review of His Life, Work and Legacy. Coloration Technology, 122 (5), 235–251.
[53] Hong, S. (2001). Wireless: from Marconi’s Black-Box to the Audion. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press.
[54] Hughes, T. P. (1989). American Genesis: A Century of Invention and Technological Enthusiasm, 1870–1970. New York: Viking.
[55] Hunter, L. C. (1985). A History of Industrial Power in the United States, 1730–1930, Vol. 2: Steam Power. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.
[56] Imai, K., & Weinstein, J. (2000). Measuring the Economic Impact of Civil War. CID Working Paper No. 51, Centre for International Development at Harvard University.
[57] Johnston, L., & Williamson, S. (2019). What Was the U.S. GDP Then? Measuring Worth. http://www.measuringworth.org/usgdp/
[58] Jones, G., & Wadhwani, R. D. (2006). Entrepreneurship and Business History: Renewing the Research Agenda. Working Paper No. 07-007, Harvard Business School, Boston MA.
[59] Kaplan, D. L., & Casey, M. C. (1958). Occupational Trends in the United States, 1900 to 1950. Bureau of the Census Working Paper No. 5. Washington, DC: G. P. O.
[60] Keller, J. (2008). Mr. Gatling’s Terrible Marvel: The Gun that Changed Everything and the Misunderstood Genius Who Invented it. Viking Adult, New York.
[61] Kim, S. (2007). Immigration, Industrial Revolution and Urban Growth in the United States, 1820–1920: Factor Endowments, Technology and Geography. NBER Working Paper Series, Working Paper 12900, Washington, DC.
[62] Knight, D. (1992). Humphry Davy: Science and Power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[63] Krug, E. A. (1972). The Shaping of the American High School: Volume 2, 1920–1941. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
[64] Lamoreaux, N. R. (1994). Insider Lending: Banks, Personal Connections, and Economic Development in Industrial New England. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
[65] Lamoreaux, N. R. (2010). Entrepreneurship in the United States, 1865–1920. In David S. Landes, Joel Mokyr, and William J. Baumol (Eds.). The Invention of Enterprise: Entrepreneurship from Ancient Mesopotamia to Modern Times, pp. 367–394, Princeton University Press.
[66] Landes, D. S. (2003). The Unbound Prometheus: Technical Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present (2nd Ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[67] Legesse, B. (2014). Research Methods in Agribusiness and Value Chains. School of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, Haramaya University.
[68] Livesay, H. C. (1993). Samuel Gompers and Organized Labor in America. Scott Foresman & Co.
[69] Lindemann, A. S. (1983). A History of European Socialism. New Haven/London: Yale University Press.
[70] Long, E. B. (1971). The Civil War Day by Day: An Almanac, 1861–1865. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
[71] Lord, W. M. (1945). The Development of the Bessemer Process in Lancashire, 1856–1900. Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 25, 163–180.
[72] Madigan, J. C. (2009). The Education of Girls and Women in the United States: A Historical Perspective. Advances in Gender and Education, 1, 11–13.
[73] Marx, K., & Engels, F. (1948). Manifesto of the Communist Party. Progress Publishers, Moscow.
[74] McCabe, J. D., & Martin, E. W. (1971). The History of the Great Riots: The Strikes and Riots on the Various Railroads of the Universited States and in the Mining Regions Together with a Full History of the Molly Maguires. A. M. Kelley Publishers, the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
[75] McCarty, T. L. (2002). Between Possibility and Constraint: Indigenous Language Education, Planning, and Policy in the US. In J. W. Tollefson (Ed.), Language Policies in Education: Critical Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
[76] Mohajan, H. K. (2013). Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change. Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany.
[77] Mohajan, H. K. (2019). The First Industrial Revolution: Creation of a New Global Human Era. Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 5 (4), 377–387.
[78] Mokyr, J. (1990). The Lever of Riches. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[79] Mokyr, J. (1999). The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870–1914. In Valerio Castronovo (Ed.), pp. 219–245. Storiadell’ Economia Mondiale. Rome: Laterza Publishing.
[80] Morse, E., & Morse, S. (1912). Letters of Samuel Morse 1812. I. The North American Review, 195 (679), 773–787.
[81] Nichols, C. M., & Unger, N. C. (Eds.) (2017). A Companion to the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. John Wiley & Sons: Wiley-Blackwell Publisher.
[82] Noltemeyer, A. L., Mujic, J., & McLoughlin, C. S. (2012). The History of Inequality in Education. In A. L. Noltemeyer & C. S. McLoughlin (Eds.), Disproportionality in Education and Special Education. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd.
[83] Osgood, R. L. (2008). The History of Special Education: A Struggle for Equality in American Public Schools. Westport, CT: Praeger.
[84] O’Sullivan, M. (2007). The Expansion of the US Stock Market, 1885–1930: Historical Facts and Theoretical Fashions. Enterprise & Society, 8 (9), 489–542.
[85] Parkerson, D. H., & Parkerson, J. A. (2001). Transitions in American Education: A Social History of Teaching. New York, Routledge.
[86] Peterson, M. J. (2008). Roots of Interconnection: Communications, Transportation and Phases of the Industrial Revolution. International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. IDEESE Project.
[87] Pirie, G. H. (2009). Incidental Tourism: British Imperial Air Travel in the 1930s. Journal of Tourism History, 1 (1), 49–66.
[88] Reef, C. (2009). Education and Learning in America. New York: Facts on File, Incorporated.
[89] Remenyi, D. S. J., Swartz, E., Money, A., & Williams, B. (1998). Doing Research in Business and Management: An Introduction to Process and Method. SAGE Publications, London.
[90] Richard, J. (2010). Network Nation: Inventing American Telecommunications. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
[91] Rosenberg, C. (2011). The Life and Times of Francis Cabot Lowell. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: Lexington Books.
[92] Roy, A. (2008). Cambridge Pioneer Honour for Bose. The Telegraph, Kolkata.
[93] Russell, L. S. (2003). A Heritage of Light: Lamps and Lighting in the Early Canadian Home. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division, Toronto, Canada.
[94] Salvatore, N. (1980). Railroad Workers and the Great Strike of 1877. Labor History, 21 (4), 522–245.
[95] Scaife, W. G. S. (1999). From Galaxies to Turbines: Science, Technology and the Parsons Family. CRC Press.
[96] Schivelbusch, W. (2014). The American Railroad. University of California Press.
[97] Schlichting, K. C. (2001). Grand Central Terminal: Railroads, Engineering, and Architecture in New York City. Johns Hopkins University Press.
[98] Seymour, R. B., & Kauffman, G. B. (1992). The Rise and Fall of Celluloid. Journal of Chemical Education, 69 (4), 311–314.
[99] Smil, V. (2005). Creating the Twentieth Century: Technical Innovations of 1867–1914 and their Lasting Impact. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
[100] Snyder, T. D. (1993). 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait. Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education.
[101] Spooner, F. (2014). Serving Students with Healthcare Needs. In M. Agran (Ed.), Equity and Full Participation for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: A Vision for the Future. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Pub.
[102] Sproule, A. (2000). Thomas Alva Edison: The World’s Greatest Inventor. Woodbridge. CT: Blackbirch Press.
[103] Stover, J. F. (1997). American Railroads (2nd Ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
[104] Tarbell, I. M. (1963). The History of the Standard Oil Company. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith.
[105] Tyack, D., & Hansot, E. (1990). Learning Together: A History of Coeducation in American Schools. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
[106] US Census Bureau (2019). Historical Statistics of the United States. US Census Bureau, USA.
[107] van Oss, S. F. (1893). American Railroads and British Inventors. London: Effingham Wilson & Co.
[108] Vassiliou, M. S. (2009). Historical Dictionary of the Petroleum Industry. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Rowman & Littlefield.
[109] Weller, C. E. (1918). The Early History of the Typewriter. Chase & Shepard, Printers.
[110] Wiebe, R. H. (1961). The Anthracite Strike of 1902: A Record of Confusion. Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 48 (2), 229–251.
[111] Wigner, E. (1960). The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences. Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics, 13 (1), 1–14.
[112] Williams, H. (2005). Cassell’s Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
[113] Wise, D. B. (1974). Daimler: Founder of the Four-Wheeler. In Tom Northey (Ed.), World of Automobiles, 5. pp. 481–483, London, Orbis.
[114] Wright, A. (1986). Socialisms: Theories and Practices. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
[115] Zinn, H. (2005). A People’s History of the United States: 1492-Present. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.