Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities
Articles Information
Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, Vol.6, No.3, Sep. 2020, Pub. Date: Jul. 7, 2020
Literature Review of Early Childhood Physical Education Practices
Pages: 166-173 Views: 144 Downloads: 45
Authors
[01] Ann-Catherine Sullivan, Department of Health, Physical Education & Exercise Science, Norfolk State University, Norfolk, United States.
Abstract
Physical Education programs are designed to provide students with positive learning experiences, which can often contribute to social opportunities where children may interact with their peers. This paper provides a literature review of the following areas of early childhood education and development; dynamic systems theory, maximum and appropriate practice, preschool physical education, preschool movement experiences, play and play environments. Dynamic systems theory purports that systems are constantly undergoing changes due to the individuals physical development, the task at hand, and/or the environment one is exposed to. This theory supports the emphasis on maximum and appropriate practice within the education environment. Research suggested that practice conditions for all children, due to their diverse levels of motor abilities, should include maximum, appropriate practice which facilitates high levels of student success that leads to student learning. Preschool physical education classes should obtain structure but the typically rigid elementary class would not be developmentally appropriate for this age level. Similarly, early childhood classes should be structured to allow for a short skill introduction followed by play which may or may not directly include the skill taught. However, the classroom theme would be reinforced throughout all activities with in the classroom environment. Kinesthetic perception is especially integral due to its association with body awareness, spatial awareness, directional awareness, and temporal awareness. Children expand their knowledge base and tactical awareness through their sense of touch and object manipulation. Therefore, this review has been structured to discuss literature related to “best practices” in early childhood physical education as it links to play and dynamic systems theory.
Keywords
Dynamic Systems Theory, Play, Maximum Practice, Appropriate Practice, Preschool Physical Education, Preschool Movement Experiences, Play Environment, United States
References
[01] Adolph, M. Eppler, K. E. and Gibson, E. J. (1993). Crawling versus walking infants’ perceptions of affordances for locomotion over sloping surfaces. Child Development, 64, 1158-1174.
[02] Avery, M. (1994). Preschool physical education: A practical approach. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65 (6), 37–44.
[03] Bakhtiar, S. (2013). The implementation of dynamic systems theory and the principles of growth in physical education of elementary school. Asian Social Science, 9 (12), pp. 104-109.
[04] Bengtsson, A. (1979). Children’s play is more than physical education. Prospects, 8 (4), 450–457.
[05] Bernstein, N. A. (1967). The control and regulation of movements. London: Pergamon Press.
[06] Brenner, M. (1976). The Effects of Sex, Structure, and Social Interaction on Preschoolers’ Make Believe in a Naturalistic Setting. (ERIC Document Reproductions Service No. ED 128 103).
[07] Burnett, C. N. & Johnson, E. W. (1971). Development of gait in Childhood: Part II. Developmental Medicine Child Neurology, 13, 207-215.
[08] Cratty, B. J. (1982). Motor development in early childhood: Critical issues for researchers in the 1980’s. In B. Spodek (Ed). Handbook of research in early childhood education. (pp. 27- 61). New York: The Free Press.
[09] Clark, J. E., Whitall, J., & Phillips, S. J. (1988). Human interlimb coordination: The first 6 months of independent walking. Developmental Psychobiology, 21, 445-456.
[10] Flinchum, B. M. (1988). Early childhood movement programs. Preparing teachers for tomorrow. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 59 (7), 62-64.
[11] French, K., Rink, J., Rikard, L., Mays, A., Lynn, S. & Werner, P. (1991). The effects of practice progressions on learning two volleyball skills. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 10, 261-275.
[12] Gabbard, C. (1996). Lifelong motor development, pp. 27-28. Dubuque, IO: Wm. C. Brown Publishers.
[13] Gabbard, C. (1988). Early childhood physical education. The essential elements. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 59 (7), 65-69.
[14] Gallahue, D. L., Ozmun, J. C. and Goodway, J. D. (2013). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, and adults (7th ed). pp. 32-34. New York, McGraw-Hill.
[15] Garvey, C. (1990). Play. Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.
[16] Gober, B. E. and Franks, B. D. (1988). Physical and fitness education of young children. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 59 (7), 57-61.
[17] Goldberger, J., & Gerney, P. (1990). Effects of learner use of practice time on skill acquisition. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 10, 84-95.
[18] Goldberger, M. (1991). Research on teaching in physical education: A commentary on Silverman’s review. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 62 (4), 369-373.
[19] Goldfield, E. C., Kay, B. A., and Warren, W. (1993). Infant bouncing: The assembly and tuning of action systems. Child Development, 64 (4), 1128-1142.
[20] Haken, H. (1983). Synergetics. An introduction. Nonequilibrium phase transitions and self-organization in physics, chemistry, and biology (3rd Ed.), New York, NY: Springer-Verlag.
[21] Hardy, C. A. (1993). Teacher communication and time on-task. Research in Education, 49 (1), 29-38.
[22] Haywood, K. (1993). Life span motor development. pp. 17-20. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.
[23] Herkowitz, J. (1977a). Developmentally engineered physical education equipment. Journal of Physical Education, and Recreation, 48 (3), 15-16.
[24] Herkowitz, J. (1977b). Movement experiences for preschool children. Physical Educator, 34 (2), 72-73.
[25] Hofsten, C. & Ronnquist, L. (1993). The structuring of neonatal arm movements. Child Development 64 (4), 1046-1057.
[26] Ignico, A. (1994). Early childhood physical education: Providing the foundation. Journalof Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65 (6), 28–30.
[27] Kugler, P. N., Kelso J. A. S. & Turvey, M. T. (1980) One the concept of coordinative structures as dissipative structures: I. Theoretical lines of convergence. Advances in Psychology, 1, 3-47.
[28] Lieberman, J. N. (1965). Playfulness and divergent thinking: An investigation of their relationship at the kindergarten level. The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, 107 (2), 219-224.
[29] Lunkenheimer, E. (2018). Dynamic Systems Theory. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development. (pp. 679-690). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
[30] Payne, V. G. and Isaacs, L. D. (1995). Human motor development: A lifespan approach. pp. 6-8, 374-375. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
[31] Poest, C. A., Williams, J. R., Witt, D. D., and Atwood, M. E. (1990). Challenge me to move: Large muscle development in young children. Young Children, 45 (5), pp. 4-10.
[32] Price, L. (1995). Physical education for 4–7 year olds. Early Child Development and Care, 109, pp. 133–142.
[33] Phyfe-Perkins, E. (1979). Children’s behavior in preschool settings. A Review of Research Concerning the Influence of the Physical Environment. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 168 722).
[34] Rikard, G. L. (1992). Developmentally appropriate gymnastics for children. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 77 (3), pp. 44-46.
[35] Rubin, K. H. (1980). Fantasy play: Its role in the development of social skills and social cognition. In K. H. Rubin (Ed.), New directions in child development: Children’s play. No 9., pp. 69-84. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[36] Rubin, K. H. (1977). Play behaviors of young children. Young Children, 32, 16-24.
[37] Sanders, S. (1994). Preschool physical education: Challenges for the profession. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65 (6), 26–27.
[38] Satchwell, L. (1994). Preschool physical education: Class structure. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65 (6), 34–36.
[39] Sawyers, J. K. (1994). The preschool playground: Developing skills through outdoor play. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 65 (6), 31–33.
[40] Silverman, S. (1993). Student characteristics, practice, and achievement in physical education. Journal of Educational Research, 87, 54-61.
[41] Smith, P. K. (1985). Rough-and-tumble play, fighting, and chasing in nursery school children. Ethology and Sociobiology, 6, 175-181.
[42] Smith, L. B. & Thelen, E. (Eds). (1993). A dynamic systems approach to development-Applications. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[43] Sutherland, D. H., Olshen, R. & Woo, S. L. (1980). The development of mature gait. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 62 (3), 336-353.
[44] Thelen, E. & Smith, L. B. (1994). A dynamic systems approach to the development of cognition and action. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
[45] Thelen, E.(1986). Development of coordinated movement: Implications for early human development. M. G. Wade & H. T. A. Whiting (Eds.), Motor development in children: Aspects of coordination and control. (pp. 107-124). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.
[46] Thelen, E, Fisher, D. & Ridley-Johnson, R. (1984). The relationship between physical growth and a newborn reflex. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 479-493.
[47] Thelen, E, Ulrich, B. & Jensen, J. (1989). The developmental origins of locomotion. In M. H. Woollacott & A. Shumway-Cook (Eds.), Development of posture and gait across the lifespan. (pp. 25-47). Columbia, S. C.: University of South Carolina Press.
[48] Witt, P. A., and Gramza, A. F. (1969). Position effects in play equipment preferences of nursery school children. Springfield: Illinois State Department of Mental Health. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 045 185).
[49] Wortham, S. C., and Wortham, M. R. (1989). Designing creative play environments. Childhood Education, 65 (5), p. 295–299.
600 ATLANTIC AVE, BOSTON,
MA 02210, USA
+001-6179630233
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.